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Full text of "The Book of Adam and Eve, also called the conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, a book of the early Eastern Church, translated from the Ethiopic, with notes from the Kufale, Talmud, Midrashim, and other Eastern works"

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UNivf.oiit or I 







A Booh of the early Eastern Churchy 
STransIatetJ from tf)c ^tfjiopic, 





15, Faubourg Montmartrc, 13, 










In token of respect for his accurate and profound Oriental 

from the Translator. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


In the Sixth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions,* we 
find a severe censure of certain early works, among which 
are reckoned ^i^ia aTroKpvtpa Mcao-eo)? kuX 'Ei/wp^, koX *A8afx, 
'Haatov re koI Aa^tS k. t. X. *'The apocryphal Books of 
Moses, of Enoch, of Adam, as well as those of Isaiah and David," 
etc. Those works, however, do not deserve all that the 
Apostles are made to say of them. 

The apocryphal " Book of Moses," there alluded to, is probably 
the XeTTTf) Fei/eo-f? or " lesser Genesis," known as having existed 
of old in Greek, under that name; and also under that of 
*A'KOKd\v'^L<i M., or TO, ^lovfitjXaia "the Apocalypse of Moses," 
or " the Book of Jubilees," quoted by S. Epiphanius,t Geo. 
Syncellus,! Geo. Cedrenus,§ and others. Of those three titles, 
rh *lov^7]Xaia remained little understood, until Dr. Dillmann 
published in 1859, the Ethiopic Kufale, or "Liber Jubilaeorum ;" 
so named by him, because throughout the book, said to have 
been revealed to Moses by " the Angel of the Face," or 
Michael — the division of periods of time is by jubilees of forty- 
oine — fifty years. The Kufale is often quoted in the notes to 
this book. 

* Ch. xvi, ed. Cotel. t Hwcs., xxxix, 6. 

X Chronogr., vol. i, p- 7, cd. D. § Hist. Comp., vol. i, p. 9. 


As to the " Book of Enoch," it was known only through a 
quotation from it by S. Jude v. 14, 15 ; and after him, from 
allusions to it by S. Hilarius, S. Clement of Alexandria, Origan, 
Geo. Syncellus, and others — until it was discovered in Abyssinia 
by Bruce, who brought several Ethiopic copies of it from 
thence to Europe ; one of which is now in the Bodleian Library. 
This was published and also translated by Archbishop Lawrence, 
in 1838. A later and more accurate edition of it was issued by 
Dr. Dillmann at Leipzig, in 1851, from several MSS. brought 
from Abyssinia since the days of Bruce ; and it has been 
translated more than once within the last few years. It is 
highly interesting, as a work of the probable date of its 
composition — ^not long before or after the coming of Christ. It 
is often quoted in the following pages. 

As to the " Book of Adam,'' mentioned in the passage above 
given from the Apostolic Constitutions, if it is not the Sidra 
VAdam, also called " the Book of Adam,*' of the Mandaeans, it 
may be Bto? *A8dfi, "the Life of Adam," alluded to by 
Geo. Syncellus,* as distinct from the XeTrrrj Teveai^;. It is 
also said to exist in Syriac and in Arabic, in the Vatican 
Libraiy j and " Vita Adae et EvaB " has lately been worked out 
of the ^ ATTOKokv^i^ 'ASdfi, and of other documents in Latin, 
by Dr. W. Meyer, of the Academy of Munich, and published 
there in 1879. 

Lastly, by the apocryphal " Book of Isaiah," is probably 
meant his " Ascension," only known in Ethiopic ; and published 
in Ethiopic and in English, by Archbishop Lawrence, at Oxford, 
in 18 19. It dates, probably, from the early days of the Church, 
and is mentioned by Origen and by S. Epiphanius,t as ro 
ava^uTLKov 'Hcraifbu. It alludes, among other things, to the 
martyrdom of Isaiah, who was sawn asunder by order of 

The present interesting work, however, has little in common 
with those apocrypha ; among which it has no right to take 

* Chron.. vol. i, p. 7. f Hmres., xl, 2 ; Ixvii, 3. 


place. Whereas they all are apparently of Jewish origin, this 
" Conflict of Adam " is altogether a Christian work, and of a 
later date than those writings. It is probably the work of 
some pious and orthodox Egyptian of the fifth or sixth 
century, who tells his story, or -stories — some of which are also 
found in the Talmud and thence in the Coran and elsewhere — 
as they were then believed ; adding here and there a good 
deal of his own. Yet all is told in the simple — to Western 
taste, perhaps, childish — style of pious Eastern writers of those 
days. The author's devout faith runs throughout his narra- 
tive ; he seems willing and ready to believe much rather than 
to doubt ; to take things for granted, rather than to question 
the truth of them. 

His object then, is to connect the first Adam with the 
coming of the second, Christ; five thousand five hundred 
years* after Adam's fall in Eden, and in fulfilment of the 
promise then made him of a Saviour. In our author's words, 
Adam holds frequent intercourse witb "the Word of God," 
who tells him of His coming in the flesh in order to save him ; 
a promise Adam charges his children to remember and to hand 
down to their own children. Then, when dead, his body is 
embalmed, and laid in the Cave of Treasures, where he and 
Eve had spent their life ; it is thence taken by Noah, with the 
gold, the incense and the myrrh brought from Eden, and laid 
in the ark ; whence it is taken out by Melchizedec after the 
Flood j and brought by him, together with Shem and an angel 
sent to show them the way, to *' the Middle of the Earth ;" 
6/x(f>aXo<: T^9 7^9, to the hill " Cranium,'' or Golgotha. There, 
the rock opens of its own accord to receive the body of Adam, 
and then closes in again. It is the very spot on which the 
Saviour's cross was raised, when He was crucified. 

This book, now first translated into English, and that tells 
much that will be new to most readers — was probably written 
in Arabic in Egypt ; whence it was taken farther south, and 

• According to the LXX. 


translated into Ethiopic. At all events no Greek or Egyptian 
original of it, is, as yet, known to exist ; neither does it betray 
the least vestige of Hellenism. There is, indeed, a Syriac 
work of the early Church, called M'drath gaze, "the Cave 
of Treasures'* mentioned by Asseman,* and ascribed to 
S. Ephrem by the presbyter Simeon, t who lived in the 
thirteenth century. Judging from its title, it may have much 
in common with the present work; yet in the absence of all 
knowledge of that Syriac MS., one can, for the present, only 
look upon the Arabic copy, written in Egypt, as the probable 
original. For the Ethiopic version, although written in good 
style, bears unmistakable marks of an Arabic origin. 

It is, of course, as yet impossible to fix with certainty the 
date of either the Arabic original, or of the Ethiopic translation. 
Dr. Dillmann, in the preface to his German translation, seems 
to think this " Conflict of Adam " may date from the fifth or 
sixth century j and there does not seem to be any good reason 
for thinking otherwise. It is, however, certain that it must 
have been written before the ninth century ; judging from the 
numerous extracts from it, given word for word, by Said 
Ibn-Batrik, or Eutychus, physician, and also Melkite Patriarch, 
who Hved in the ninth century ; when he wrote his Nazam 
al-jawdhir, or " String of Gems " as he called his " Annals of 
the World," from the creation to his own time. It is a work 
of merit ; although, perhaps, too full of stories that cannot be 
received as authentic. 

The present translation was made on the accurate and 
Bcholarly Ethiopic edition lately published by the great 
orientalist Dr. E. Trumpp, Professor at the University of 
Munich. He had the advantage of the Arabic original which 
he frequently quotes in his valuable notes, of which I have 
often availed myself ; an advantage the " magnus Apollo," 
in Ethiopic lore. Dr. Dillmann, does not seem to have had, 

* Bibl. Or., vol. iii, p. 281, and vol. ii, p. 498, 
t Jb., vol. iii, p. 663 


for comparison with the more or less imperfect MSS. on which 
he made his German translation in 1853. 

As the Ethiopic text is irregularly divided in sections, — 
some of great length, owing to the subject in hand, — I thought 
more convenient to divide my translation into Books, and 
chapters, some of which have the same headings as those given 
in the text. 

Book I — takes in the whole life of Adam and Eve, from the 
day they left Eden ; their dwelling in the Cave of Treasures ; 
their trials and temptations; Satan's manifold apparitions to 
them, and the Word of God coming to comfort and help them. 
Then the birth of Cain, of Abel, and of their twin sisters ; 
Cain's love for his own twin sister, Luluwa, whom Adam and 
Eve wished to join to Abel ; hence Cain's hatred and murder 
of his brother ; and Adam's sorrow and death. 

Book II — gives the history of the patriarchs who lived before 
the Flood ; the dwelling of the children of Seth on the Holy 
Mountain — Mount Hermon — until they were lured by Genun 
and by the daughters of Cain, to come down from the mountain ; 
and as "fallen angels," to lose God's love for them. Then 
Cain's death, when slain by Lamech the blind ; and the lives of 
the other patriarchs, until the birth of Noah. 

Book III — gives the history of the building of the ark ; of 
the Flood, of the settlement of Noah and his family ; and of the 
carrying of the body of Adam to " the Middle of the Earth ;" 
the growth of idolatry under Nimrud ; the destruction of 
idols ; and the call of Abraham. 

Book IV — gives a short history of the patriarchs, judges and 
kings, from Abraham to the coming of Christ. 

The first three Books are by far the most interesting. 

The fourth professes to give genealogies that were irre- 
trievably lost ; yet somehow, discovered and given in detail by 
the author. Most of the names are of pure Ethiopic origin, 
and others are so disfigured as not to be recognized. I have, 

viii PREFACE. 

therefore, given them unaltered ; as they cannot be of any 
great moment. 

I have only to add that although frequently obliged to 
translate freely sundry passages unfit for a more accurate 
rendering, I have yet kept as much as I could to the style of 
the original, as best in a work of this kind. I have also added 
a few notes from the Talmud, Midrashim and other Eastern 
writings, placed at the end of the volume, and numbered, to 
which reference is made in the text — in order either to illustrate 
the matter in hand^ or to supply details of particular interest. 


The Vicaeaqe, Broadwindsor, 
July I2th, 1882. 





In tlie name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost: One God. 

We begin, with the help of God, to whom be glory, the 
writing of the Conflict of Adam and Eve, that befell them after 
they had come out of the garden, and while they dwelt in the 
Cave of Treasures, by command of God the Creator.* 


On the third day,t God planted* the garden^ in the east of 
the earth, on the border of the world^ eastward, beyond which, 
towards the sun-rising, one finds nothing but water, that 
encompasses the whole world, and reaches unto the borders of 

And to the north [of the garden] there is a sea of water, 
clear and pure to the taste, like unto nothing else; so that, 

* The Ethiopic translator adds here — " their Creator and Ruler, to Him by 
name, the living God, endowed with reason and speech, Creator of all creatures 
— be glory." 

t Of the week, Beresh. Rdb., sect, i, fol. 18. 

J for the most learned work as yet published on the probable site of Eden, 
see Wo lag das Pa/radies ? of Dr. F. Delitzsch, 1881. 



through the clearness thereof, one may look into the depths of 
the earth.* And when a man washes himself in it, he becomes 
clean of the cleanness thereof, and white of its whiteness — even 
if he were dark.f 

And God created that sea of His own good pleasm*e, J for He 
knew what would come of the man He should make j so that 
after he had left the garden, on account of his transgression,^ 
men should he born in the earth, from among whom righteous 
ones should die, whose souls God would raise at the last day ; 
when they should return to their flesh ; should bathe in the 
water of that sea, and all of them repent of [their] sins. 

But when God made Adam go out of the garden,* He did 
not place him on the border of it northward, lest he should 
draw near to the sea of water, and he and Eve wash themselves 
in it, be cleansed from their sins, forget the transgression they 
had committed, and be no longer reminded of it in the thought§ 
of their punishment. 

Then, again, as to the southern side [of the garden], God 
was not pleased to let Adam dwell there ; because, when the 
wind blew from the north, it would bring him, on that southern 
side, the delicious smell of the trees of the garden. Wherefore 
God did not put Adam there, lest he should smell the sweet 
smell of [those] trees,'^ forget his transgression, and find 
consolation for what he had done, take delight in the smell of 
the trees, and not be cleansed from his transgression.^ 

Again, also, because God is merciful and of great pity, and 
governs all things in a way He alone knows — He made our 
father Adam dwell in the western border of the garden, because 
on that side the earth is very broad.^ And God commanded 
him to dwell there in a cave in a rock— the Cave of Treasures 
below the garden.^" 

* Lit. world. t Or, black. 

X Or^ " with a deliberate plan or purpose of His own." Arab. 

§ Lit. sound or echo. 



But when our father Adam, and Eve, went out of the 
garden,^^ they trod [the ground] on their feet, not knowing 
they were treading. 

And when they came to the opening of the gate of the 
garden, and saw the broad earth spread before them, [covered] 
with stones large and small, and with sand, they feared and 
trembled, and fell on their faces, from the fear that came upon 
them ; and they were as dead. 

Because — whereas they had hitherto been in the garden- 
land, beautiful [ly planted] with all manner of trees — they now 
saw themselves, in a strange land, which they knew not, and 
had never seen.^^ 

[And] because at that time they were filled with the grace 
of a bright nature,^^ and they had not hearts [turned] towards 
earth [ly things] . 

Therefore had God pity on them ; and when He saw them 
fallen before the gate of the garden, He sent His Word* unto 
father Adam and Eve, and raised them from their fallen state.f 


Concerning the promiseX of the great Jive days and a half. 

God said to Adam, " I have ordained on this earth days and 
years, and thou and thy seed shall dwell and walk in it, until 
the days and years are fulfilled ; when I shall send the Word 
that created thee, and against which thou hast transgressed, 

* By " the Word of God " throughout this book, is to be understood in 
general, the second person of the most Holy Trinity, 6 Xoyoc (S. John i.) 
''"*T SnD"^Z3 or SHQ^D of the Targums and Talmuds also ; as abundantly 
shown in the book Yezirah (ed. Amst. 1642, p. 84, 89). 

•j- Lit. their fall. t Or- covenant. 



the Word that made thee come out of the garden, and that 
raised thee when thou wast fallen. Yea, the Word that will 
again save thee when the five days and a half are fulfilled."* 

But when Adam heard these words from God, and [of] the 
great five days and a half, he did not understand the meaning 
of them. 

For Adam was thinking that there would be but five days 
and a half for him, to the end of the world. 

And Adam wept, and prayed God to explain it to him. 

Then God in His mercy for Adam [who was made after] His 
own image and similitude, explained to him, that these were 
5000 and 500 years ; and how One would then come and save 
him and his seed.^* 

But God had before that made this covenant with our father,t 
Adam, in the same terms, ere he came out of the garden, [when 
he was] by the tree whereof Eve took [the fruit] and gave it 
him to eat. 

Inasmuch as, when our father Adam came out of the garden, 
he passed by J that tree, and saw how God had then changed 
the appearance of it into another form, and how it withered. 

And as Adam went to it he feared, trembled and fell down ; 
but God in His mercy lifted him up, and then made this cove- 
nant with him.§ 

And, again, when A(^a,m was by the gate of the garden, 
and saw the cherub with a sword of flashing fire in his hand, 
and the cherub grew angry and frowned at him, both Adam 
and Eve became afraid of him, and thought he meant to put 
them to death. So they fell on their faces, and trembled with 

But he had pity on them, and showed them mercy; and 
turning [from them] went up to heaven, and prayed unto the 
Lord, and said : — 

* According to Cod. Nasar. Ill, p. 69, this world is to last from the creation 
of Adam, 480,000 years. t Or» made this promitie to. 

J Or, went away from. § Or, made him this promise. 


"Lord, Thou didst send me to watch at the gate of the 
garden, with a sword of fire. 

" But when Thy servants, Adam and Eve, saw me, they fell 
on their faces, and were as dead. O my Lord, what shall we do 
to Thy servants ? " 

Then God had pity on them, and showed them mercy, and 
sent His Angel to keep the garden. 

And the Word of the Lord came unto Adam and Eve, and 
raised them up. 

And the Lord said to Adam, " I told thee that at the end of 
five days and a half, I will send my Word and save thee. 

" Strengthen thy heart, therefore, and abide in the Cave of 
Treasures, of which I have before spoken to thee.'* 

And when Adam heard this Word from God, he was com- 
forted with that which God had told him. For He had told 
him how He would save him. 


But Adam and Eve wept for having come out of the garden, 
their first abode. 

And, indeed, when Adam looked at his flesh,* that was 
altered, he wept bitterly, he and Eve, over what they had done. 
And they walked and went gently down into the Cave of 

And as they came to it Adam wept over himself and said to 
Eve, " Look at this cave that is to be our prison in this world, 
and a place of punishment ! 

" What is it compared with the garden ? What is its 
narrowness compared with the spacef of the other ? 

" What is this rock, by the side of those groves ? What is 
the gloom of this cavern, compared with the light of the 
garden ? 

* Or, body, and so throughout. f Or, room, breadth. 


"What is this overhanging ledge of rock to shelter us, 
compared with the mercy of the Lord that overshadowed us ? 

'' What is the soil of this cave compared with the garden - 
land ? This earth, strewed with stones ; and that, planted 
with delicious fruit-trees ?" 

And Adam said to Eve, " Look at thine eyes, and at mine, 
which afore beheld angels in heaven, praising ; and they, too, 
without ceasing. 

" But now we do not see as we did : our eyes have become 
of flesh ; they cannot see in like manner as they saw before/' 

Adam said again to Eve, " What is our body to-day, 
[compared] to what it was in former days, when we dwelt in 
the garden V 

After this Adam did not like to enter the cave, under the 
overhanging rock ; nor would he ever have entered it. 

But he bowed to God's orders ; and said to himself, " unless 
I enter the cave, I shall again be a transgressor." 


Then Adam and Eve entered the cave, and stood praying,^^ 
in their own tongue, unknown to us, but which they knew 

And as they prayed, Adam raised his eyes, and saw the 
rock and the roof of the cave that covered [him] overhead, 
so that he could see neither heaven, nor God's creatures. So he 
wept and smote heavily upon his breast, until he dropped, 
and was as dead. 

And Eve sat weeping ; for she believed he was dead. 

Then she arose, spread her hands towards God, suing Him 
for mercy and pity, and said, " God, forgive me my sin, 
[the sin] which I committed, and remember it not against 


" For I alone'^ caused Thy servant to fall from the garden 
into this lost estate ;* from light into this darkness j and from 
the abode of joy into this prison. 

** God, look upon this Thy servant thus fallen,f and raise 
him from his death, that he may weep and repent of his 
transgression which he committed through me. 

" Take not away his soul this once ; but let him [live] that 
he may stand after the measure of his repentance, and do Thy 
will, as before his death. 

" Bat if Thou do not raise him up, then, God, take away 
my own soul, [that I be] like him ; and leave me not in this 
dungeon, one and alone; for I could not stand alone in this 
world, but with him [only] . 

"For Thou, O God, didst cause a slumber to come upon 
him, and didst take a bone from his side,^''' and didst restore 
the flesh in the place of it, by Thy divine power. 

" And Thou didst take me, the bone, and make me a woman, 
bright like him, with heart, reason, and speech ; J and in flesh, 
like unto his own ; and Thou didst make me after the likeness 
of his countenance, by Thy mercy and power. 

" O Lord, I and he are one, and Thou, God, art our 
Creator, Thou art [He] who made us both in one day.^^ 

" Therefore, O God, give him life, that he may be with me 
iu this strange land, while we dwell in it on account of our 

" But if Thou wilt not give him life, then take me, even me, 
like him ', that we both may die the same day.''§ 

And Eve wept bitterly, and fell upon our father Adam j from 
her great sorrow. 


But God looked upon them ; for they had killed themselves 

through great gi'ief. 

* Lit. extinction, destruction. t Or> cast down. 

J Kujale,p. 11,12. § Lit. with a fervent heart. 


But He would raise them and comfort them. 

He, therefore, sent His Word unto them ; that they should 
stand and be raised forthwith. 

And the Lord said unto Adam and Eve, " You transgressed 
of your owp free will, until you came out of the garden in which 
I had placed you. Of your own free will have you transgressed^' 
through your desire for divinity, greatness, and an exalted state, 
such as I have ; so that I deprived you of the bright nature in 
which you then were, and I made you come out of the garden 
to this land, rough and full of trouble. 

*' If only you had not transgressed My commandment and 
had kept My law, and had not eaten of the [fruit of the] tree, 
near which I told you not to come ! And there were fruit trees 
in the garden better than that one. 

*' But the wicked Satan^ who continued not in his first 
estate, nor kept his faith ; in whom was no good [intent] 
towards Me, [and who] though I had created him, yet set Me 
at naught, and sought the Godhead, so that I hurled him 
down from heaven, — he it is who made the tree* appear pleasant 
in your eyes, until you ate of it, by hearkening to him.^^ 

" Thus have you transgressed My commandment, and there- 
fore have I brought upon you all these sorrows.^^ 

" For I am God the Creator, who, when I created My 
creatures, did not intend to destroy them. But after they had 
sorely roused My anger, I punished them with grievous plagues, 
until they repent. 

''But, if on the contrary, they still continue hardened in their 
trdnsgression,t they shall be under a curse for ever.*' 


When Adam and Eve heard these words from God, they 
wept and sobbed yet more ; but they strengthened their hearts 

* Whose fruit was either grapes, apple of Paradise, or figs. Beresh. Rob., 
sect, xiv, fol. 18. 
I Lit. are in debt of it. 


in God, because they now felt that the Lord was to them like a 
father and a mother ; and for this very reason, they wept before 
Him, and sought mercy from Him. 

Then God had pity on them, and said : " Adam, I have 
made My covenant with thee,* and I will not turn from it ; 
neither will I let thee return to the garden, until My covenant 
of the great five days and a half is fulfilled." 

Then Adam said unto God, " Lord, Thou didst create us, 
and make us [fit] to be in the garden ; and before I transgressed, 
Thou madest all beasts come to me, that I should name them. 

" Thy grace was then on me ; and I named every one accord- 
ing to Thy mind ; and Thou madest them all subject unto me.^^ 

" But now, Lord God, that I have transgressed Thy com- 
mandment, all beasts will rise against me and will devour me, 
and Eve Thy handmaid ; and will cut off our life from the face 
of the earth. 

'* I therefore beseech Thee, God, that, since Thou hast made 
us come out of the garden, and hast made us be in a strange 
land, Thou wilt not let the beasts hurt us." 

When the Lord heard these words from Adam, He had pity 
on him, and felt that he had truly said that the beasts [of the 
field] would rise and devour him and Eve, because He, the 
Lord, was angry with them [two] on account of their trans- 

Then God commanded the beasts, and the birds, and all that 
moves upon the earth, to come to Adam and to be familiar with 
him,t and not to trouble him and Eve ; nor yet any of the good 
and righteous among their posterity. 

Then the beasts did obeisance to Adam, according to the 
commandment of God ; except the serpent, against which God 
was wroth. It did not come to Adam, with the beasts. | 

* Or, I made thee a promise. 
•(• Or, do obeisance to him ; or to submit to him. 

X Another reading is that God did not bring the serpent, or forbade it to 
come, with the other beasts, because He was angry with it. 



Then Adam wept and said, " [0] God, when we dwelt in 
the garden, and our hearts were lifted up, we saw the angels 
that sang praises in heaven, but now we do not see as we were 
used to do ;^ nay, when we entered the cave, all creation became 
hidden from us." 

Then God the Lord said unto Adam, "When thou wast 
under subjection [to Me], thou hadst a bright nature within 
thee,^^ and for that reason couldst thou see things afar off. But 
after thy transgression thy bright nature was withdrawn from 
thee j and it was not left to thee to see things afar off, but only 
near at hand ; after the ability of the flesh ; for it is brutish." 

When Adam and Eve had heard these words from God, they 
went their way ; praising and worshipping Him with a sorrow- 
ful heart. 

And God ceased to commune with them. 


Then Adam and Eve came out of the Cave of Treasures, and 
drew near to the garden gate, and there they stood to look 
at it, and wept for having come away from it. And Adam 
and Eve went from before the gate of the garden to the 
southern side of it, and found there the water that watered the 
garden, from the root of the Tree of Life, and that parted 
itself from thence into four rivers over the earth.* 

Then they came and drew near to that water, and looked at 
it ; and sawf that it was the water that came forth from under 
the root of the Tree of Life in the garden. And Adam wept 
and wailed, and smote upon his breast, for being severed from 
the garden ; and said to Eve : — 

* Beresh. Bah., sect, xvi, fol. 18, 19 ; and More Nevukim, sect, ii, ch. 30. 
t Lit. knew. 


*' Why hast thou brought upon me, upon thyself, and upon 
our seed, so [many] of [these] plagues and punishments ?" 

And Eve said unto him, "What is it thou hast seen, to 
weep and to speak to me in this wise V 

And he said to Eve, " Seest thou not this water that was 
with us in the garden, that watered the trees of the garden, 
and flowed out [thence] ? 

" And we, when we were in the garden, did not care about 
it ;* but since we came to this strange land, we love it, and turn 
it to use for our hodj." 

But when Eve heard these words from him, she wept ; and 
from the soreness of their weeping, they fell into that water ; 
and would have put an end to themselves in it, so as never 
again to return and behold the creation ; for when they looked 
upon the work of creation, they [felt they must] put an end 
to themselves, t 


Then God, merciful and gracious, looked upon them thus 
lying in the water, and nigh unto death, and sent an angel, 
who brought them out of the water, and laid them on the sea- 
shore as dead. 

Then the angel went up to God, was welcome, and said, 
" [0] God, Thy creatures have breathed their last.'' 

Then God sent His Word unto Adam and Eve, who raised 
them from [their] death. 

And Adam said, after he was raised, " God, while we 
were iir the garden we did not [require, or] care for this 
water; J but since we came to this land we cannot do without it. 

* It is said that " he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow " (Eccl. i. 18). 
So did Adam increase his sorrow when he increased his knowledge. Bere*h, 
Bab., sect, xix, fol. 20. 

t i.e., from sorrow at having left the garden so much more heavenly and 
more beautiful. 

X The Ethiopic translator added : " For Thy mercy was with us ; we needed 
not this water." 


Then God said to Adam, "While thou wast under My com- 
mand and wast a bright angel, thou knewest not this water.* 

" But after that thou hast transgressed My commandment, 
thou canst not do without water, wherein to wash thy body 
and make it grow ; for it is now like [that of] beasts, and is 
in want of water." 

When Adam and Eve heard these words from God, they 
wept a bitter cry ; and Adam entreated God to let him return 
into the garden, and look at it a second time. 

But God said unto Adam, " I have made thee a promise ;t 
when that promise is fulfilled, I will bring thee back into the 
garden, thee and thy righteous seed." 

And God ceased to commune with Adam. 


Then Adam and Eve felt themselves burning with thirst, and 
heat, and sorrow. 

And Adam said to Eve, ** We shall not drink of this water, 
even if we were to die. Eve, when this water comes into 
our inner parts, it will increase our punishments and that of 
our children, that shall come after us." 

Both Adam and Eve then withdrew from the water, and 
drank none of it at all ; but came and entered the Cave of 

But [when in it] Adam could not see Eve ; he only heard 
the noise she made. Neither could she see Adam, but heard 
the noise he made. 

* AuTtXovv «3e dffapKoi, aapKiKrJQ SiaOitreuc ovTrm Kaipbv ixovrig. Cedren. 
H. Comp., p. 14. 

t Also : •' I haye boand thee to Me in a covenant ; when that covenant is 


Then Adam wept, in deep affliction, and smote upon his 
breast ; and he arose and said to Eve, " Where art thou V 

And she said unto him, " Lo, I am standing in this dark- 

He then said to her, " Remember the bright nature in which 
we lived, while we abode in the garden ! " 

" O Eve ! remember the glory* that rested on us in the 
garden.^^ Eve ! remember the trees that overshadowed us 
in the garden while we [moved] among them. 

" O Eve ! remember that while we were in the garden, we 
knew neither night nor day . Think of the Tree of Life,t from 
below which flowed the water, and that shed lustre over 
us ! Remember, Eve, the garden-land, and the brightness 
thereof ! 

" Think, oh think of that garden in which was no darkness, 
while we dwelt therein. 

" Whereas no sooner did we come into this Cave of Treasures 
than darkness compassed us round about; until we can no 
longer see each other ; and all the pleasure of this life has 
come to an end." 


Then Adam smote upon his breast, he and Eve, and they 
mourned the whole night until dawn drew near, and they 
sighed over the length of the night in Miyazia. J 

And Adam beat himself, and threw himself on the ground in 
the cave, from bitter grief, and because of the darkness, and 
lay there as dead. 

But Eve heard the noise he made in falling upon the earth. 
And she felt about for him with her hands, and found him like 
a corpse. 

Then she was afraid, speechless, and remained by him. 

* Or, grace, favour. Arab. 

t " Whose height was ^''^W nSD W^H "f'^nD a walk of 500 years."— 
Targ. Jonathan, in Gen. iii. J May. 


But, the merciful Lord looked on the death of Adam, and on 
Eve's silence from fear of the darkness. 

And the Word of God came unto Adam and raised him from 
his death, and opened Eve's mouth that she might speak. 

Then Adam arose in the cave and said, '' God, wherefore 
has light departed from us, and darkness come over us ? 
Wherefore dost Thou leave us in [this] long darkness ? Why 
wilt Thou plague us thus ? 

''And this darkness, O Lord, where was it ere it came upon 
us ? It is such, that we cannot see each other. 

" For, so long as we were in the garden, we neither saw nor 
even knew [what] darkness [is] . I was not hidden from Eve, 
neither was she [hidden] from me, until [now that] she cannot 
see me ; and no darkness came upon us, to separate us from 
each other. 

" But she and I were both in one bright light. I saw her 
and she saw me. Yet now since we came into this cave, dark- 
ness has come upon us, and parted us asunder, so that I do 
not see her, and she does not see me. 

" Lord,* wilt Thou then plague us with this darkness ? " 


Then when God, who is merciful and full of pity, heard 
Adam's voice. He said unto him : — 

" Adam, so long as the good angel was obedient to Me, 
a bright light rested on him and on his hosts. 

*' But when he transgressed My commandment, I deprived 
him of that bright nature, and he became dark. 

" And when he was in the heavens, in the realms of light, he 
knew naught of darkness. 

* Arab, adds : " but now be gracious unto ns." 


" But he transgressed, and I made him fall from heaven upon 
the earth ; and it was this darkness that came upon him.* 

"And on thee, O Adam, while in My garden and obedient 
to Me, did that bright light rest also. 

" But when I heard of thy transgression,t T deprived thee 
of that bright light. Yet, of My mercy, I did not turn thee 
into darkness, but I made thee thy body of flesh, over which I 
spread this skin, in order that it may bear cold and heat. J 

" If I had let My wrath fall heavily upon thee, I should have 
destroyed thee ; and had I turned thee into darkness, it would 
have been as if I killed thee. 

" But in My mercy, I have made thee as thou art ; when 
thou didst transgress My commandment, O Adam, I drove thee 
from the garden, and made thee come forth into this land ; and 
commanded thee to dwell in this cave; and darkness came 
upon thee, as it did upon him who transgressed My command- 

" Thus, O Adam, has this night deceived thee. It is not to 
last for ever ; but is only of twelve hours ; when it is over, day- 
light will return. 

" Sigh not, therefore, neither be moved ; and say not in thy 
heart that this darkness is long and drags on wearily ; and say 
not in thy heart that I plague thee with it. 

" Strengthen thy heart, and be not afraid. This darkness is 
not a punishment. But, Adam, I have made the day, and 
have placed the sun in it to give light ; in order that thou and 
thy children should do your work. 

" For I knew thou shouldest sin and transgress, and come 
out into this land. Yet would I not [force thee, nor] be hard 
upon thee, nor shut thee up ; nor doom thee through thy fall;§ 

* Arab. '* upon them all together," i,e., Satan and his hosts, 
f Arab, reads : " but when thou didst transgress against me," omitting " I heard." 
% Arab. " to keep off heat and cold from thee.'' 

§ Dr. Trumpp translates this: "Yet thou wast not forced (or obliged) to 
transgress ; neither did I fasten thee down (seal thee) nor doom thee to the fall." 


nor through thy coming out from h'ght into darkness j nor 
yet [through thy coming] from the garden into this land. 

" For 1 made thee of the hght ; and I willed to bring out 
children of light from thee, and like unto thee. 

" But thou didst not keep one day My commandment ; until I 
had finished the creation and blessed everything in it. 

" Then I commanded thee concerning the tree, that thou eat 
not thereof. Yet I knew that Satan, who deceived himself, 
would also deceive thee. 

" So I made known to thee by means of the tree, not to come 
near him.* And I told thee not to eat of the fruit thereof, nor 
to taste of it, nor yet to sit under it,t nor to yield to it. 

'' Had I not been and spoken to thee, Adam, concerning 
the tree, and had I left thee without a commandment, and thou 
hadst sinned — it would have been an offence on My part, for 
not having given [thee] any order ; thou wouldst turn round 
and blame Me [for it] . 

" But I commanded thee, and warned thee, and thou didst 
fall. So that My creatures J cannot blame me j but the blame 
rests on them alone. 

'^ And, Adam, I have made the day for thee and for thy 
children after thee, for them to work, and toil therein. And I 
have made the night for them to rest in it from their work ; 
and for the beasts [of the field] to go forth by night and seek 
their food. 

" But little of darkness now remains, Adam ; and day- 
light will soon appear." 


Then Adam said unto God : " Lord, take Thou my soul, 
and let me not see this gloom any more ; or remove me to some 
place where there is no darkness. 

* i.e., Satan. f Or, haunt it. % Or works. 


But God the Lord said to Adam, " Verily I say unto thee, 
this darkness will pass from thee, every day I have determined 
for thee, until the fulfilment of My covenant ; when I will save 
thee and bring thee back again into the garden, into the abode 
of light thou longest for, wherein is no darkness. I will bring 
thee to it — in the kingdom of heaven." 

Again said God unto Adam, "All this misery that thou 
hast been made to take upon thee because of thy transgression, 
will not free thee from the hand of Satan, and will not save 

" But I [will] . When I shall come down from heaven, and 
shall become flesh of thy seed, and take upon Me the infirmity 
from which thou sufferest, then the darkness that came upon 
thee in this cave shall come upon Me in the grave, when I am 
in the flesh of thy seed. 

"And I, who am without years, shall be subject to the 
reckoning of years, of times, of months, and of days, and I 
shall be reckoned as one of the sons of men, in order to save 

And God ceased to commune with Adam.* 


Then Adam and Eve wept and sorrowed by reason of God's 
word to them, that they should not return to the garden until 
the fulfilment of the days decreed upon them ; but mostly 
because God had told them that He should suffer for their 


After this Adam and Eve ceased not to stand in the cave, 
praying and weeping, until the morning dawned upon them. 

* Lit. and God withdrew His Word from Adam. 


And when they saw the light returned to them, they re- 
strained from fear, and strengthened their hearts. 

Then Adam began to come out of the cave. And when he 
came to the mouth of it, and stood and turned his face towards 
the east, and saw the sun rise in glowing rays, and felt the heat 
thereof on his body, he was afraid of it, and thought in his 
heart that this flame came forth to plague him. 

He wept then, and smote upon his breast, and fell upon the 
earth on his face, and made his request, saying : — 

" Lord, plague me not, neither consume me, nor yet take 
away my life from the earth.*' 

For he thought the sun was God. 

Inasmuch as while he was in the garden and heard the voice 
of God and the sound He made in the garden, and feared Him, 
Adam never saw the brilliant light of the sun, neither did the. 
flaming heat thereof touch his body. 

Therefore was he afraid of the sun when flaming rays of it 
reached him. He thought God meant to plague him therewith 
all the days He had decreed for him. 

For Adam also said in his thoughts. As God did not plague 
us with darkness, behold, He has caused [this sun] to rise and 
to plague us with burning heat. 

But while he was thus thinking in his heart, the Word of God 
came [unto him and said] : — 

" Adam, arise and stand up. This sun is not God ; but it 
has been created to give light by day, of which I spake unto 
thee in the cave [saying], 'that the dawn would break forth, 
and there would be light by day.' • 

" But I am God who comforted thee in the night." 
And God ceased to commune with Adam. 


Then Adam and Eve came out at the mouth of the cave, and 
went towards the garden. 


But as they drew near to it, before the western gate, from 
which Satan came when he deceived Adam and Eve, they found 
the serpent that became Satan coming at the gate, and sorrow- 
fully licking the dust, and wriggling on its breast on the 
ground, by reason of the curse that fell upon it from God.*'' 

And whereas aforetime [the serpent] was the most exalted 
of all beasts,^ now it was changed and become slippery, and the 
meanest of them all, and it crept on its breast and went on its 

And whereas it was the fairest of all beasts, it had been 
changed, and was become the ugliest of them all. Instead of 
feeding on the best food, now it turned to eat the dust. Instead 
of dwelling, as before, in the best places, now it lived in the 

And, whereas it had been the most beautiful of all beasts, 
all of which stood dumb at its beauty, it was now abhorred of 

And, again, whereas it dwelt in one beautiful abode, to which 
all other animals came from elsewhere ; [and] where it drank, 
they drank also of the same ; now, after it had become 
venomous, by reason of God's curse, all beasts fled from its 
abode, and would not drink of the water it drank ; but fled 
from it. 


When the accursed serpent saw Adam and Eve, it swelled 
its head, stood on its tail, and with eyes blood-red, did as if 
it would kill them. 

It made straight for Eve, and ran after her ; while Adam 
standing by, wept because he had no stick in his hand^ 
wherewith to smite the serpent, and knew not how to put [it] 
to death. 

But with a heart burning for Eve, Adam approached the 

2 * 


serpent, and held it by the tail ; when it turned towards him 
and said unto him : — 

" Adam, because of thee and of Eve, I am slippery, and 
go upon my belly." Then by reason of its great strength, it 
threw down Adam and Eve and pressed upon them, as if it 
would kill them. 

But God sent an angel who threw the serpent away from 
them, and raised them up. 

Then the Word of God came to the serpent, and said unto it, 
''In the first instance I made thee glib, and made thee to 
go upon thy belly ; but I did not deprive thee of speech. 

" Now, however, be thou dumb ; and speak no more, thou and 
thy race f^ because in the first place, has the ruin My creatures 
happened through thee, and now thou wishest to kill them."* 

Then the serpent was struck dumb, and spake no more. 

And a wind came to blow from heaven by command of God, 
that carried away the serpent from Adam and Eve, threw it 
on the sea shore, and it landed in India. 


But Adam and Eve wept before God. And Adam said unto 

" O Lord, when I was in the cave, I said this to Thee, my 
Lord, that the beasts [of the field] would rise and devour me, 
and cut off my life from the earth," Then Adam, by reason 
of what had befallen him, smote upon hia breast, and fell upon 
the earth like a corpse ; then came to him the Word of God, 
who raised him, and said unto him, *'0 Adam, not one of 
these beasts will be able to hurt thee ; because when I made 
the beasts and other moving things come to thee in the cave, 
I did not let the serpent come with them, lest it should rise 
against you, make you tremble ; and the fear of it should fall 

* Kat ibv ivTiOtjaiv iiirb rtjv yXdrTav avTov, Jo8. Ant. Jud. Lib. i, c. i, 4. 


into your hearts. For I knew that that accursed one is 
wicked ; therefore would I not let it come near you with the 
[other] beasts. 

" But now strengthen thy heart and fear not. I am with 
thee unto the end of the days I have determined on thee." 


Then Adam wept and said, " God, remove us to some 
other place, that the serpent may not come again near us, and 
rise against us. Lest it find Thy handmaid Eve alone and kill 
her ; for its eyes are hideous [and] evil.*' 

But God said to Adam and Eve, "Henceforth fear not, I 
will not let it come near you ; I have driven it away from you, 
from this mountain ; neither will I leave in it aught to hurt 

Then Adam and Eve worshipped before God and gave Him 
thanks, and praised Him for having delivered them from death. 


Then Adam and Eve went in search of the garden. 

And the heat beat like a flame on their faces; and they 
sweated from the heat, and wept before the Lord. 

But the place where they wept was nigh unto a high 
mountain, facing the western gate of the garden. 

Then Adam threw himself down from the top of that 
mountain ; his face was torn and his flesh was flayed ; much 
blood flowed from him, and he was nigh unto death. 

Meanwhile Eve remained standing on the mountain weeping 
over him, thus lying. 

And she said, " I wish not to live after him ; for all that he 
did to himself was through me." 


Then she threw herself after him ; and was torn and scotched 
by stones ; and remained lying as dead. 

But the merciful God, who looks upon His creatures, looked 
upon Adam and Eve as they lay dead, and He sent His Word 
unto them, and raised them. 

And said to Adam, " O Adam, all this misery which thou 
hast wrought upon thyself, will not avail against [My] rule, 
neither will it alter the covenant of the 5500 years." 


Then Adam said to God, " I wither in the heat ; I am faint 
from walking, and am loth of this world. And I know not 
when Thou wilt bring me out of it, to rest.'* 

Then the Lord God said unto him, " Adam, it cannot be 
at present, [not] until thou hast ended* thy days. Then shall 
I bring thee out of this wretched land.*' 

And Adam said to God, " While I was in the garden I knew 
neither heat, nor languor, neither moving about, nor trembling, 
nor fear ; but now, since I came to this land, all this affliction 
has come upon me.'' 

Then God said to Adam, " So long as thou wast keeping My 
commandment, My light and My grace rested on thee. But 
when thou didst transgress My commandment, sorrow and 
misery befell thee in this land." 

And Adam wept and said, " O Lord, do not cut me off for 
this, neither smite me with heavy plagues, nor yet repay me 
according to my sin ; For we, of our own will, did transgress 
Thy commandment, and forsook Thy law, and sought to 
become gods like unto Thee, when Satan the enemy f deceived 

Then God said again unto Adam, " Because thou hast borne 
fear and trembling in this land, languor and suffering, treading 

* Lit. paid, redeemed. f Lit. hater. 


and walking about,* going upon this mountain, and dying 
[from it], I will take all this upon Myself in order to save 


First offering made hy Adam. 

Then Adam wept more and said, " O God, have mercy on 
me, so far as to take upon Thee, that which I will do." 

But God took His Word from Adam and Eve. 

Then Adam and Eve stood on their feet ; and Adam said to 
Eve, " Gird thyself,t and I also will gird myself." And she 
girded herself, as Adam told her. Then Adam and Eve took 
stones and placed them in the shape of an altar; J and they 
took leaves from the trees outside the garden, with which they 
wiped, from the face of the rock, the blood they had spilled. 
But that which had dropped on the sand, they took together 
with the dust [wherewith it was mingled] and offered it upon 
the altar as an offering unto God. 

Then Adam and Eve stood under the altar§ and wept, thus 
entreating God, " Forgive us our trespass and our sin, and 
look upon us with Thine eye of mercy. For when we were in 
the garden our praises and our hymns went up before Thee 
without ceasing. 

" But when we came into this strange land, pure praise was 
no longer ours, nor righteous prayer, nor understanding hearts, 
nor sweet thoughts, nor just counsels, nor long discernment, 
nor upright feelings, neither is our bright nature left us. But 
our body is changed from the similitude in which it was at first, 
when we were created. 

* Arab. ' toil, labour.' 

t This is the literal rendering in Ethiopic of the Arabic word that means also 
" brace, or strengthen thyself." 

X Lit. of an ark, the middle part of a church in Abyssinia. 

§ Lit. the sanctuary or temple; literal rendering of the probable Arabic original. 
It is a canopy over the Holy Table, on which the tdbut, or ark, is placed. 


" Yet now look upon our blood which is offered upon these 
stones, and accept it at our hands, like the praises we used to 
sing unto Thee at first, when in the garden." 

And Adam began to make more requests unto God. 


Then the merciful God, good and lover of men, looked upon 
Adam and Eve, and upon their blood, which they had held up 
as an offering unto Him ; without an order from Him [for so 
doing]. But He wondered at them; and accepted their 

And God sent from His presence a bright fire, that con- 
sumed their offering. 

He smelt the sweet savour of their offering, and showed 
them mercy. 

Then came the Word of God to Adam, and said unto him, 
" Adam, as thou hast shed thy blood, so will I shed My own 
blood when I become flesh of thy seed ; and as thou didst die, 
O Adam, so also will I die. And as thou didst build an altar, 
so also will I make for thee an altar on the earth ; and as thou 
didst offer thy blood upon it, so also will I offer My blood upon 
an altar on the earth.'* 

" And as thou didst sue for forgiveness through that blood, 
so also will I make My blood forgiveness of sins, and blot out 
transgressions in it. 

" And now, behold, I have accepted thy offering, Adam, 
but the days of the covenant, wherein I have bound thee, are 
not fulfilled. When they are fulfilled, then will I bring thee 
back into the garden. 

" Now, therefore, strengthen thy heart ; and when sorrow 
comes upon thee, make Me an offering, and I will be favour- 
able to thee." 



But God knew that Adam had in his thoughts, that he 
should often kill himself and make an offering to Him of his 

Therefore did He say unto him, " O Adam, do not again 
kill thyself as thou didst, by throwing thyself down from that 

But Adam said unto God, " It was in my mind to put an 
end to myself at once, for having transgressed Thy command- 
ments, and for my having come out of the beautiful garden ; 
and for the bright light of which Thou hast deprived me ; and 
for the praises which poured forth from my mouth without 
ceasing, and for the light that covered me. 

" Yet of Thy goodness, God, do not away with me 
altogether; but be favourable to me every time I die, and 
bring me to life. 

"And thereby it will be made known that Thou art a 
merciful God, who wiliest not that one should perish ; who 
lovest not that one should fall ; and who dost not condemn 
any one cruelly, badly, and by whole destruction.'* 

Then Adam remained silent. 

And the Word of God came unto him, and blessed him, and 
comforted him, and covenanted with him, that He would save 
him at the end of the days determined upon him. 

This, then, was the first offering Adam made unto God ; 
and so it became his custom to do. 


Then Adam took Eve, and they began to return to the Cave 
of Treasures where they dwelt. But when they neared it and 
saw it from afar, heavy sorrow fell upon Adam and Eve when 
they looked at it. 


Then Adam said to Eve, " When we were on the mountain 
we were comforted by the Word of God that conversed with 
us ; and the light that came from the east, shone over us. 

" But now the Word of God is hidden from us ; and the light 
that shone over us is so changed as to disappear, and [let] 
darkness and sorrow come upon us. 

"And we are forced to enter this cave [which is] like a 
prison, wherein darkness covers us, so that we are parted 
from each other; and thou canst not see me, neither can I 
see thee.'' 

When Adam had said these words, they wept and spread 
their hands before God ; for they were full of sorrow. 

And they entreated God to bring the sun to them, to shine 
on them, so that darkness return not upon them, and they 
come not again under this covering of rock. And they wished 
to die rather than see the darkness. 

Then God looked upon Adam and Eve and upon their great 
sorrow, and upon all they had done with a fervent heart, on 
account of all the [trouble] they were in, instead of their 
former well-being, and on account of all the misery that came 
upon them in a strange land. 

Therefore God was not wroth with them ; nor impatient 
with them ; but He was long-suffering and forbearing towards 
them, as [towards] the children He had created. 

Then came the Word of God to Adam, and said unto him, 
" Adam, as for the sun, if I were to take it [and bring it to 
thee],* days, hours, years and months would all come to naught, 
and the covenant I have made with thee, would never be 

''But thou shouldest then be turned and left in a long 
plague, and no salvation would be left to thee for ever. 

" Yea, rather, bear long and calm thy soul while thou 
abidest night and day ; until the fulfilment of the days, and 
the time of My covenant is come. 

* Also — " to withhold it, days," &c. 


" Then shall I come and save thee, Adam, for I do not 
wish that thou be afflicted. 

'*And when I look at all the good things in which thou 
didst live, and why thou camest out of them, then would I 
willingly show thee mercy. 

"But I cannot alter the covenant that has gone out of 
My mouth; else would I have brought thee back into the 

"When, however, the covenant is fulfilled, then shall I 
show thee and thy seed mercy, and bring thee into a land of 
gladness, where there is neither sorrow nor suffering; but 
abiding joy and gladness, and light that never fails, and 
praises that never cease; and a beautiful garden that shall 
never pass away.'' 

And God said again unto Adam, " Be long suffering and 
enter the cave, for the darkness of which thou wast afraid, 
shall only be twelve hours long ; and when ended, light shall 

Then when Adam heard these words from God, he and Eve 
worshipped before Him, and their hearts were comforted. 
They returned into the cave after their custom, while tears 
flowed from their eyes, sorrow and wailing came from their 
hearts, and they wished their soul would leave their body. 

And Adam and Eve stood praying, until the darkness of 
night came upon them, and Adam was hid from Eve, and she 
from him. 

And they remained standing in prayer. 


First apparition of Satan to Adam. 

When Satan, the hater of all good, saw how they continued 
in prayer, and how God communed with them, and comforted 
them, and [how He had] accepted their offering — Satan made 


an apparition. He began with transforming his hosts; in 
his hands was a flashing fire, and they were in a great 

He then placed his throne near the mouth of the cave 
because he could not enter into it by reason of their prayers. 
And he shed light into the cave, until the cave glistened over 
Adam and Eve ; while his hosts began to sing praises. 

And Satan did this, in order that when Adam saw the light, 
he should think within himself that it was a heavenly light, 
and that [Satan^s] hosts were angels ; and that God had sent 
them to watch at the cave, and to give him light in the 

So that when Adam came out of the cave and saw them, 
and Adam and Eve bowed to Satan, then he would overcome* 
Adam thereby, and a second time humble him before God. 

When, therefore, Adam and Eve saw the light, fancying it 
was real, they strengthened their hearts ; yet, as they were 
trembling, Adam said to Eve : — 

" Look at that great light, and at those many songs of 
praise, and at that host standing outside that do not come 
in to us, do not tell us what they say, or whence they come, 
or what is the meaning of this light ; what those praises are ; 
wherefore they have been sent hither, and why they do not 
come in. 

" If they were from God, they would come to us in the 
cave, and would tell us their errand." 

Then Adam stood up and prayed unto God with a fervent 
heart, and said: — 

" O Lord, is there in the world another god than Thou, 
who created angels and filled them with light, and sent them 
to keep us, who would come with them ? 

" But, lo we see these hosts that stand at the mouth of the 
cave ; they are in a great light ; they sing loud praises. If 

* Or, sway. 


they are of some other god than Thou, tell me ; and if they 
are sent by Thee, inform me of the reason for which Thou hast 
sent them." 

No sooner had Adam said this, than an angel from God 
appeared unto him in the cave, who said unto him, " Adam, 
fear not. This is Satan and his hosts ; he wishes to deceive 
you as he deceived you at first. For the first time, he was 
hidden in the serpent ; but this time he is come to you in the 
similitude of an angel of light ; in order that, when you 
worshipped him, he might enthrall you, in the very presence 
of God." 

Then the angel went from Adam, and seized Satan at the 
opening of the cave, and stripped him of the feint he had 
assumed, and brought him in his own hideous form to Adam 
and Eve ; who were afraid of him when they saw him. 

And the angel said to Adam, " This hideous form has been 
his ever since God made him fall [from heaven] . He could not 
have come near you in it ; therefore did he transform himself 
into an angel of light." 

Then the angel drove away Satan and his hosts from Adam 
and Eve, and said unto them, " Fear not ; God who created 
you, will strengthen you." 

And the angel went from them. 

But Adam and Eve remained standing in the cave ; no 
consolation came to them; they were divided [in their 
thoughts] . 

And when it was morning they prayed ; and then went out 
to seek the garden. For their hearts were towards it, and 
they could get no consolation for having left it. 


Second apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 
But when the wily Satan saw them, that they were going to 


the garden, he gathered together his host, and came in 
appearance upon a cloud, intent on deceiving them. 

But when Adam and Eve saw him thus in a vision, they 
thought they were angels of God come to comfort them about 
their having left the garden, or to bring them back again 
into it. 

And Adam spread his hands unto God, beseeching Him to 
make him understand what they were. 

Then Satan, the hater of all good, said unto Adam, '^0 Adam, 
I am an angel of the great God ; and, behold the hosts that 
surround me. 

'' God has sent me and them to take thee and bring thee to 
the border of the garden northwards ; to the shore of the 
clear sea, and bathe thee and Eve in it, and raise you to your 
former gladness, that ye return again to the garden." 

These words sank into the heart of Adam and Eve. 

Yet God withheld His Word from Adam, and did not make 
him understand at once,, but waited to see his strength; 
whether he would be overcome as Eve was when in the garden, 
or whether he would prevail. 

Then Satan called to Adam and Eve, and said, " Behold, we 
go to the sea of water," and they began to go. 

And Adam and Eve followed them at some little distance. 

But when they came to the mountain to the north of the garden, 
a very high mountain, without any steps to the top of it, the 
Devil* drew near to Adam and Eve, and made them go up to 
the top in reality, and not in a vision ; wishing, as he did, to 
throw them down and kill them, and to wipe off their name 
from the earth ; so that this earth should remain to him and 
his hosts alone. 


But when the merciful God saw that Satan wished to kill 
* Lit. Diabolos. 


Adam with his manifold devices, and saw that Adam was meek 
and without guile, God spake unto Satan in a loud voice, and 
cursed him. 

Then he and his hosts fled, and Adam and Eve remained 
standing on the top of the mountain, whence they saw below 
them the wide world, high above which they were. But they 
saw none of the host which anon were by them. 

They wept, both Adam and Eve, before God, and begged for 
forgiveness of Him. 

Then came the Word from God to Adam, and said unto him, 
" Know thou and understand concerning this Satan, that he 
seeks to deceive thee and thy seed after thee.'' 

And Adam wept before the Lord God, and begged and 
entreated Him to give him something from the garden, as a 
token to him, wherein to be comforted.^^ 

And God looked upon Adam's thought, and sent the angel 
Michael as far as the sea that reaches unto India, to take from 
thence golden rods and bring them to Adam. 

This did God in His wisdom, in order that these golden 
rods, being with Adam in the cave, should shine forth with 
light in the night around him, and put an end to his fear of 
the darkness. 

Then the angel Michael went down by God's order, took 
golden rods, as God had commanded him, and brought them 
to God. 


After these things, God commanded the angel Gabriel to 
go down to the garden, and say to the cherub who kept it, 
*' Behold, God has commanded me to come into the garden, 
and to take thence sweet smelling incense, and give it to 

Then the angel Gabriel went down by God's order to the 
garden, and told the cherub as God had commanded him. 


The cherub then said, " Wisll." And [Gabriel] went in and. 
took the incense. 

Then God commanded His angel Raphael to go down to the 
garden, and speak to the cherub about some myrrh, to give to 

And the angel Raphael went down and told the cherub as 
God had commanded him, and the cherub said, " Well." Then 
[Raphael] went in and took the myrrh. 

The golden rods were from the Indian sea, where there are 
precious stones. The incense was from the eastern border of 
the garden ; and the myrrh from the western border, whence 
bitterness came upon Adam. 

And the angels brought these three things to God, by the 
Tree of Life, in the garden. 

Then God said to the angels, " Dip them in the spring of 
water ; then take them and sprinkle their water over Adam 
and Eve, that they be a little comforted in their sorrow, and 
give them to Adam and Eve. 

And the angels did as God had commanded them, and they 
gave all those things to Adam and Eve on the top of the 
mountain upon which Satan had placed them, when he sought 
to make an end of them. 

And when Adam saw the golden rods, the incense and the 
myrrh, he was rejoiced and wept because he thought that the 
gold was a token of the kingdom whence he had come, that the 
incense was a token of the bright light which had been taken 
from him, and that the myrrh was a token of the sorrow in 
which he was. 


After these things God said unto Adam, " Thou didst ask 
of Me something from the garden, to be comforted therewith, 
and I have given thee these three tokens as a consolation to 
thee ; that thou trust in Me and in My covenant with thee. 


" For I will come and save thee ; and kings*^ shall bring me 
[when] in the flesh, gold, incense and myrrh ; gold as a token 
of My kingdom ;t incense as a token of My divinity ; and 
myrrh as a token of My sufferings and of My death.^* 

" But, Adam, put these by thee in the cave ; the gold that 
it may shed light over thee by night ; the incense, that thou 
smell its sweet savour ; and the myrrh, to comfort thee in thy 

When Adam heard these words from God, he worshipped 
before Him. He and Eve worshipped Him and gave Him 
thanks, because He had dealt mercifully with them. 

Then God commanded the three angels, Michael, Gabriel 
and Raphael, each to bring what he had brought, and give it to 
Adam. And they did so, one by one. 

And God commanded Suriyel and Salathiel to bear up Adam 
and Eve, and bring them down from the top of the high 
mountain, and to take them to the Cave of Treasures. 

There they laid the gold on the south side of the cave, the 
incense on the eastern side, and the myrrh on the western side. 
For the mouth of the cave was on the north side. 

The angels then comforted Adam and Eve, and departed. 

The gold was seventy rods ; the incense, twelve pounds ; 
and the myrrh, three pounds. 

These remained by Adam in the HouseJ of Treasures ; there- 
fore was it called " of concealment." But other interpreters 
say it was called the " Cave of Treasures," by reason of the 
bodies of righteous men that were in it. 

These three things did God give to Adam, on the third day 
after he had oome out of the garden, in token of the three days 
the Lord should remain in the heart of the earth. 

* Three magi-kings came to worship Him. Tchamitch. Hist. Armen. vol. i, 
p. 277. See the note at the end of this work. 

f i.e., of My being king. 

X The word bdt, cave, and bet, honse, were probably mistaken the one for the 



And these three things, as they continued with Adam in the 
cave, gave him light by night ; and by day they gave him a 
little relief from his sorrow.* 


And Adam and Eve remained in the Cave of Treasures until 
the seventh day ; they neither ate of the fruit of the earth, nor 
drank water. 

And when it dawned on the eighth day, Adam said to Eve, 
" Eve, we prayed God to give us somewhat from the garden, 
and He sent His angels who brought us what we had desired. 

"But now, arise, let us go to the sea of water we saw at 
first, and let us stand in it, praying that God will again be 
favourable to us and take us back to the garden ; or give us 
something ; or that He will give us comfort in some other land 
than this in which we are.'' 

Then Adam and Eve came out of the cave, went and stood 
on the border of the sea in which they had before thrown 
themselves, and Adam said to Eve : — 

" Come, go down into this place, and come not out of it until 
the end of thirty days, when I shall come to thee. And pray to 
God with a fervent heart and a sweet voice, to forgive us. 

" And I will go to another place, and go down into it, and 
do like thee." 

Then Eve went down into the water, as Adam had com- 
manded her. Adam also went down into the water ; and they 
stood praying ; and besought the Lord to forgive them their 
offence, and to restore them to their former state. 

And they stood thus praying, unto the end of the five-and- 
thirty days. 

* See note 38. 


Third apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. . 

But Satan, the hater of all good, sought them in the cave, 
but found them not, although he searched diligently for them. 

But he found them standing in the water praying, and 
thought within himself, " Adam and Eve are thus standing in 
that water beseeching Grod to forgive them their transgression, 
and to restore them to their former estate, and to take them 
from under my hand. 

" But I will deceive them so that they shall come out of the 
water, and not fulfil their vow.^^* 

Then the hater of all good, went not to Adam, but he went 
to Eve, and took the form of an angel of God, praising and 
rejoicing, and said to her : — 

" Peace be unto thee ! Be glad and rejoice ! God is favour- 
able unto you, and He sent me to Adam. I have brought him 
the glad tidings of salvation, and of his being filled with bright 
light as he was at first. 

" And Adam, in his joy for his restoration, has sent me to 
thee, that thou come to me, in order that I crown thee with 
light like him. And he said to me, ^ Speak unto Eve ; if 
she does not come with thee, tell her of the sign when we 
were on the top of the mountain; how God sent His angels 
who took us and brought us to the Cave of Treasures; and 
laid the gold on the southern side ; incense, on the eastern 
side; and myrrh on the western side.' Now come to him." 

When Eve heard these words from him, she rejoiced greatly. 
And thinking that [Satan's] appearancef was real, she came 
out of the sea. 

He went before, and she followed him until they came to 
Adam. Then Satan hid himself from her, and she saw him no 

* Or, desire. t Lit. sign. 

3 * 


She then came and stood before Adam, who was standing by 
the water and rejoicing in God's forgiveness. 

And as she called to him, he turned round, found her [there] 
and wept when he saw her, and smote upon his breast ; and 
from the bitterness* of his grief, he sank into the water. 

But God looked upon him and upon his misery, and upon 
his being about to breathe his last. And the Word of God 
came from heaven, raised him out of the water, and said unto 
him, '' Go up the high bank to Eve." And when he came up 
to Eve he said unto her, '' Who said to thee ' come hither ? ' " 

Then she told him the discourse of the angel who had 
appeared unto her and had given her a sign. 

But Adam grieved, and gave her to know it was Satan. He 
then took her and they both returned to the cave. 

These things happened to them the second time they went 
down to the water, seven days after their coming out of the 

They fasted in the water thirty-five days ; altogether forty- 
two days since they had left the garden.^^ 


And on the morning of the forty-third day, they came out of 
the cave, sorrowful and weeping. Their bodies were lean, and 
they were parched from hunger and thirst, from fasting and 
praying, and from their heavy sorrow on account of their 

And when they had come out of the cave they went up the 
mountain to the west of the garden. 

There they stood and prayed and besought God to grant 
them forgiveness of their sins. 

And after their prayers Adam began to entreat God, saying, 
" O my Lord, my God, and my Creator, Thou didst command 

* Lit. greatness. 

1.] ADAM'S PRAYER. 37 

the four elements to be gathered together,* and they were 
gathered together by Thine order. 

'' Then Thou spreadest Thy hand and didst create me out of 
one element, that of dust of the earth ; and Thou didst bring 
me into the garden at the third hour, on a Friday, and didst 
inform me of it in the cave. 

" Then, at first, I knew neither night nor day, for I had a 
bright nature ; neither did the light in which I lived ever leave 
me to know night or day. 

*' Then, again, Lord, in that third hour in which Thou 
didst create me. Thou broughtest to me all beasts, and lions, 
and ostriches, and fowls of the air, and all things that move 
in the earth, which Thou hadst created at the first hour [before 
me] of the Friday. 

"And Thy will was that I should name them all, one 
by one, with a suitable name. But Thou gavest me under- 
standing and knowledge, and a pure heart and a right min'^ 
from Thee, that I should name them after Thine own mind 
regarding [the naming of them] . 

" O God, Thou madest them obedient to me, and [didst order] 
that not one of them break from my sway, according to Thy 
commandment, and to the dominion which Thou hast given 
me over them. Bat now they are all estranged from me. 

" Then it was in that third hour of Friday, in which Thou 
didst create me, and didst command me concerning the tree, 
to which I was neither to draw near, nor to eat thereof ; for 
Thou saidst to me in the garden, ' When thou eatest of it, of 
death thou shalt die.' 

" And if Thou hadst punishedf me as Thou saidst, with 
death, I should have died that very moment. J 

" Moreover, when Thou commandedst me regarding the tree, 
I was neither to approach nor to eat thereof, Eve was not with 
me ; Thou hadst not yet created her, neither hadst Thou yet 

* See note 8. f Lit. judged, sentenced. 

X Lit. in my hour, or time. 


taken her out of my side ; nor had she yet heard this order 
from Thee. 

" Then, at the end of the third hour of that Friday, O Lord, 
Thou didst cause a slumber and a sleep to come over me, and 
I slept, and was overwhelmed in sleep. 

" Then Thou didst draw a rib out of my side, and created it 
after my own similitude and image. Then I awoke; and 
when I saw her and knew who she was, I said, * This is bone 
of my bones, and flesh of my flesh ; henceforth she shall be 
called woman.' 

** It was of Thy good will, O God, that Thou broughtest a 
slumber and a sleep over me, and [that Thou] didst forthwith 
bring Eve out of my side, until she was out, so that I did not 
see how she was made ; neither could I witness, O my Lord, 
how awful and great are Thy goodness and glory. 

" And of Thy goodwill, O Lord, Thou madest us both with 
bodies of a bright nature, and Thou madest us two, one ; and 
Thou gavest us Thy grace, and didst fill* us with praises of 
the Holy Spirit ; that we should be neither hungry nor thirsty, 
nor know what sorrow is, nor [yet] f aintness of heart ; neither 
suffering, fasting, nor weariness. 

" But now, God, since we transgressed Thy commandment 
and broke Thy law, Thou hast brought us out into a strange 
land, and has caused sufiering, and faintness, hunger and 
thirst to come upon us. 

" Now, therefore, O God, we pray Thee, give us something 
to eat from the garden,^^ to satisfy our hunger with it j and 
something wherewith to quench our thirst. 

" For, behold, many days, God, we have tasted nothing 
and drunk nothing, and our flesh is dried up, and our strength 
is wasted, and sleep is gone from our eyes from faintness and 

" Then, O God, we dare not gather aught of the fruit of 

* Lit. satisfy. 


trees, from fear of Thee. For when we transgressed at first 
Thou didst spare us, and didst not make us die. 

*' But now, we thought in our hearts, if we eat of the fruit 
of trees, without God's order. He will destroy us this time, and 
will wipe us off from the face of the earth. 

"And if we drink of this water, without God's order. He will 
make an end of us, and root us up at once. 

" Now, therefore, God, that I am come to this place with 
Eve, we beg Thou wilt give us of the fruit of the garden, that 
we may be satisfied with it. 

" For we desire the fruit that is on the earth, and all [else] 
that we lack in it." 


Then God looked again upon Adam and his weeping and 
groaning, and the Word of God came to him, and said unto 
him : — 

" Adam, when thou wast in My garden, thou knewest 
neither eating nor drinking ; neither faintness nor suffering ; 
neither leanness of flesh, nor change; neither did sleep depart 
from thine eyes. But since thou transgressedst, and camest 
into this strange land, all these trials are come upon thee. 


Then God commanded the cherub, who kept the gate of the 
garden with a sword of fire in his hand, to take some of the 
fruit of the fig-tree, and to give it to Adam. 

The cherub obeyed the command of the Lord God, and 
went into the garden and brought two figs on* two twigs, each 
fig hanging to its leaf; they were from two of the trees among 
which Adam and Eve hid themselves when God went to walk 

* Lit. and. 


in the garden, and the Word of God came to Adam and Eve 
and said unto them, " Adam, Adam, where art thou V And 
Adam answered, " God, here am I. I hid myself among 
fig-trees ; and when I heard the sound of Thee and Thy voice, 
I hid myself, because I am naked." 

Then the cherub took two figs and brought them to Adam 
and to Eve. But he threw them to them from afar ; for they 
might not come near the cherub by reason of their flesh, that 
could DOt come near the fire. 

At first, angels trembled at the presence of Adam and were 
afraid of him.* But now Adam trembled before the angels and 
was afraid of them. 

Then Adam drew near and took one fig, and Eve also came 
in turn and took the other. 

And as they took them up in their hands, they looked at 
them, and knew they were from the trees among which they 
had hidden themselves. 

And Adam and Eve wept sore. 


Then Adam said to Eve, " Seest thou not these figs and 
their leaves, with which we covered ourselves when we were 
stripped of our bright nature ? But now, we know not what 
misery and suffering may come upon us from eating them. 

"Now, therefore, Eve, let us restrain ourselves and not 
eat of them, thou and I ; and let us ask God to give us of the 
fruit of the Tree of Life.'' 

Thus did Adam and Eve restrain themselves, and did not 
eat of those figs. 

But Adam began to pray to God and to beseech Him to 
give him of the fruit of the Tree of Life, saying thus : " O 
God, when we transgressed Thy commandment at the sixth 

* See note 24. 


hour of Friday, we were stripped of the bright nature we had," 
and did not continue in the garden after our transgression, 
more than three hours. 

''But on the evening Thou madest us come out of it. 
God, we transgressed against Thee one hour, and all these 
trials and sorrows have come upon us until this day. 

" And those days together with this the forty-third day, do 
not redeem* that one hour in which we transgressed ! 

*' God, look upon us with an eye of pity, and do not 
requite us according to our transgression of Thy command- 
ment, in presence of Thee. 

" O God, give us of the fruit of the Tree of Life, that we 
may eat of it, and live, and turn not to see sufferings and other 
[trouble], in this earth; for Thou art God. 

" When we transgressed Thy commandment. Thou madest 
us come out of the garden, and didst send a cherub to keep the 
Tree of Life, lest we should eat thereof, and live ; and know 
nothing of faintness after we transgressed. 

" But now, Lord, behold, we have endured all these days, 
and have borne sufferings. Make these forty-three days an 
equivalentf for the one hour in which we transgressed. 


After these things the Word of God came to Adam, and 
said unto him : — 

" O Adam, as to the fruit of the Tree of Life, for which thou 
askest, I will not give it thee now, but when the 5500 years 
are fulfilled. Then will I give thee of the fruit of the Tree of 
Life, and thou shalt eat, and live for ever, thou, and Eve, and 
thy righteous seed. 

* Or, make up for. f Even with. 


" But these forty-three days cannot make amends* for the 
hour in which thou didst transgress My commandment. 

" Adam, I gave thee to eat of the fig-tree in which thou 
didst hide thyself. Go and eat of it, thou and Eve. 

" I will not deny t thy request, neither will I disappoint thy 
hope ; therefore, bear up unto the fulfilment of the covenant 
I made with thee.'' 

And God withdrew His Word from Adam. 


Then Adam returned to Eve, and said to her, *' Arise, and 
take a fig for thyself, and I will take another; and let us go to 
our cave.'' 

Then Adam and Eve took [each a fig] and went towards the 
cave j the time was about the setting of the sun ; and their 
thoughts made them long to eat of the fruit. 

But Adam said to Eve, " I am afraid to eat of this fig. I 
know not what may come upon me from it." 

So Adam wept, and stood praying before God, saying, 
" Satisfy my hunger, without my having to eat this fig ; for 
after I have eaten it, what will it profit me ? And what shall 
I desire and ask of Thee, God, when it is gone ? " 

And he said again, " I am afraid to eat of it ; for I know 
not what will befall me through it." 


Then the Word of God came to Adam, and said unto him, 
" O Adam, why hadst thou not this dread, neither this fasting, 
nor this care ere this ? And why hadst thou not this fear 
before thou didst transgress ? 

* Or, redeem. f Or, reject, turn back. 


" But when thou earnest to dwell in this strange land, thy 
animal body could not be on earth without earthly food, to 
strengthen it and to restore its powers/^ 

And God withdrew His Word from Adam. 


Then Adam took the fig, and laid it on the golden rods. 
Eve also took [her] fig, and put it upon the incense.'® 

And the weight of each fig was that of a water-melon ; for 
the fruit of the garden was much larger than the fruit of this 

But Adam and Eve remained standing and fasting the 
whole of that night, until the morning dawned. 

WTien the sun rose they were at their prayers, and Adam 
said to Eve, after they had done praying : — 

" Eve, come, let us go to the border of the garden looking 
south ; to the place whence the river flows, and is parted into 
four heads.* There we will pray to God, and ask Him to give 
us to drink of the Water of Life. 

" For God has not fed us with the Tree of Life, in order 
that we may not live. We will, therefore, ask Him to give us 
of the Water of Life, and to quench our thirst with it, rather 
than with a drink of water of this land.^'f 

When Eve heard these words from Adam, she agreed ; and 
they both arose and came to the southern border of the 
garden, upon the brink of the river of water at some little 
distance from the garden. 

And they stood and prayed before the Lord, and asked Him 

to look upon them this once, to forgive them, and to grant 

them their request. 

* Or, streams. 

t As read by Dillmann, it may also mean, that we may do without the water 
of this land — or, of this earth. 


After this prayer from both of them, Adam began [to pray] 
with [his] voice before God, and said : — 

" Lord, when I was in the garden and saw the water that 
flowed from under the Tree of Life, my heart did not desire, 
neither did my body require to drink of it ; neither did I know 
thirst, for I was living ; and above that which I am now. 

" So that in order to live I did not require any Food of Life, 
neither did I drink of the Water of Life. 

" But now, God, I am dead ; my flesh is parched with 
thirst. Give me of the Water of Life that I may drink of it 
and live. 

" Of Thy mercy, God, save me from these plagues and 
trials, and bring me into another land different from this, if 
Thou wilt not let me dwell in Thy garden.*' 


Then came the Word of God to Adam, and said unto him : — 

*' Adam, as to what thou sayest, ' Bring me into a land 
where there is rest,' it is not another land than this, but it is 
the kingdom of heaven where [alone] there is rest. 

" But thou canst not make thy entrance into it at present ; 
but [only] after thy judgment* is past and fulfilled. 

" Then will I make thee go up into the kingdom of heaven, 
tbee and thy righteous seed ; and I will give thee and them 
the rest thou askest for at present. 

" And if thou saidst, ' Give me of the Water of Life that I 
may drink and live ' — it cannot be this day, but on the day 
that I shall descend into hell, and break the gates of brass, and 
bruise in pieces the kingdoms of iron. 

" Then will I in mercy save thy soul and the souls of the 
righteous, [to give them] rest in My garden. And that shall 
be when the end of the world is come. 

* i.e., thy sentence — or, panishment. 


" And, again, as regards the Water of Life thou seekest, it 
will not be granted thee this day ; but on the day that I shall 
shed My blood upon thy head in the land of Golgotha. 

" For My blood shall be the Water of Life unto thee, at that 
time, and not to thee alone, but unto all those of thy seed who 
shall believe in Me ; that it be unto them for rest for ever." 

The Lord said again unto Adam, " O Adam, when thou wast 
in the garden, these trials did not come to thee. 

*'But since thou didst transgress My commandment, all 
these sufferings have come upon thee. 

" Now, also, does thy flesh require food and drink ; drink 
[then] of that water that flows by thee on the face of the 

Then God withdrew His Word from Adam. 

And Adam and Eve worshipped the Lord, and returned 
from the river of water to the cave. It was noon-day ; and 
when they drew near to the cave, they saw a large fire by it. 


Fourth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 

Then Adam and Eve were afraid, and stood still. And Adam 
said to Eve, " What is that fire by our cave ? We do nothing 
in it to bring about this fire. 

" We neither have bread to bake therein, nor broth* to cook 
there. As to this fire, we know not the like, neither do we 
know what to call it. 

" But ever since God sent the cherub with a sword of fire 
that flashed and lightened in his hand, from fear of which we 
fell down and were like corpses [have we not seen the like]. 

" But now, O Eve, behold, this is the same fire that was in 

* Or, soup, mess, cooking. 


the cherub's hand, which God has sent to keep the cave in 
which we dwell. 

" Eve, [it is] because God is angry with us, and will drive 
us from it. 

" Eve, we have again transgressed [His] commandment in 
that cave, so that He has sent this fire to [burn] around it, and 
to prevent us from going into it.* 

" If this be really so, Eve, where shall we dwell ? and 
whither shall we flee from before the face of the Lord ? Since, 
as regards the garden. He will not let us abide in it, and He 
has deprived us of the good things thereof ; but He has placed 
us in this cave, in which we have borne darkness, trials and 
hardships, until [at last] we found comfort therein. 

*' But now that He has brought us out into another land, who 
knows what may happen in it ? And who knows but that the 
darkness of that land may be far greater than the darkness of 
this land ? 

'' Who knows what may happen in that land by day or by 
night ? And who knows whether it will be far or near, Eve ? 
Where it will please God to put us, [may be] far from the 
garden, Eve ! or where God will prevent us from beholding 
Him, because we have transgressed His commandment, and 
because we have made requests unto Him at all times ? 

" Eve, if God will bring us into a strange land other than 
this, in which we find consolation, it must be to put our soulsf 
to death, and blot out our name from the face of the earth. 

" Eve, if we are farther estranged from the garden and from 
God, where shall we find Him again, and ask Him to give us 
gold, incense, myrrh, and some fruit of the fig-tree ? 

" Where shall we find Him, to comfort us a second time ? 
Where shall we find Him, that He may think of us, as regards 
the covenant He has made on our behalf?" J 

* Or, and He will not let us enter into it. 
t Or, " us," X Or, " the promise He has made us." 


Then Adam said no more. And they kept looking, he and 
Ere, towards the cave, and at the fire that flared up around it. 

But that fire was from Satan. For he had gathered trees 
and dry grasses, and had carried and brought them to the cave, 
and had set fire to them, in order to consume the cave and 
what was in it. 

So that Adam and Eve should be left in sorrow, and he 
should cut off their trust in Grod, and make them deny Him. 

But by the mercy of God he could not burn the cave,* for 
God sent His angel round the cave to guard it from such a fire, 
until it went out. 

And this fire lasted from noon- day until the break of day. 
That was the forty-fifth day. 


• Yet Adam and Eve were standing and looking at the fire, and 
unable to come near the cave from their dread of the fire. 

And Satan kept on bringing trees and throwing them into 
the fire, until the flame thereof rose up on high, and covered 
the whole cave, thinking, as he did in his own mind, to consume 
the cave with much fire. But the angel of the Lord was 
guarding it. 

And yet he could not curse Satan, nor injure him by word, 
because he had no authority over him, neither did he take to 
doing so with words from his mouth. 

Therefore did the angel bear with him, without saying one 
bad word, until the Word of God came who said to Satan, " Go 
hence ; once before didst thou deceive My servants, and this 
time thou seekest to destroy them. 

" Were it not for My mercy I would have destroyed thee 

♦ The Arabic here adds, " for God defeated the thoughts of that deceiver, so 
that the fire did not hurt the care ; but the angel," &c. 


and tliy hosts from off the earth. But I have had patience 
with thee,* unto the end of the world." 

Then Satan fled from before the Lord. But the fire went 
on burning around the cave like a coal-fire the whole day ; 
which was the forty -sixth day Adam and Eve had spent since 
they came out of the garden. 

And when Adam and Eve saw that the heat of the fire had 
somewhat cooled down, they began to walk towards the cave to 
get into it as they were wont ; but thfey could not, by reason 
of the heat of the fire. 

Then they both took to weeping because of the fire that 
made separation between them and the cave, and that drew 
towards them, burning. And they were afraid. 

Then Adam said to Eve, " See this fire of which we have a 
portion in us : which formerly yielded to us, but no longer 
does so, now that we have transgressed the limit of creation, 
and changed our condition, and our nature is altered. But the 
fire is not changed in its nature, nor altered from its creation. 
Therefore has it now power over us ; and when we come near 
it, it scorches our flesh." 


Then Adam rose and prayed unto God, saying, " See, this 
fire has made separation between us and the cave in which 
Thou hast commanded us to dwell; but now, behold, we 
cannot go into it." 

Then God heard Adam, and sent him His Word, that said : — 

" Adam, see this fire ! how [different] the flame and heat 
thereof are from the garden of delights and the good things 
in it ! 

" When thou wast under My control, all creatures yielded to 

* Or, " respited thee." 


thee ; but after thou hast transgressed My commandment, they 
all rise over thee." 

Again said God unto him, " See, O Adam, how Satan has 
exalted thee ! He has deprived thee of the Godhead, and of 
an exalted state like unto Me, and has not kept his word to 
thee ; but, after all, is become thy foe. It is he who made this 
fire in which he meant to bum thee and Eve. 

" Why, O Adam, has he not kept his agreement with thee, 
not even one day ; but has deprived thee of the glory that was 
on thee — when thou didst yield to his command ? 

" Thinkest thou, Adam, that he loved thee when he made 
this agreement with thee ? Or, that he loved thee and wished 
to raise thee on high ? 

" But no, Adam, he did not do all that out of love to thee ; 
but he wished to make thee come out of light into darkness ; 
and from an exalted state to degradation ; from glory to 
abasement ; from joy to sorrow ; and from rest to fasting and 

God said also to Adam, '* See this fire kindled by Satan 
around thy cave ; see this wonder that surrounds thee ; and 
know that it will encompass about both thee and thy seed, when 
ye hearken to his behest ; that he will plague you with fire ; 
and that ye shall go down into hell after ye are dead. 

'' Then shall ye see the burning of his fire, that will thus be 
burning around you and your seed. There shall be no deliver- 
ance from it for you, but at My coming ; in like manner as thou 
canst not now go into thy cave, by reason of the great fire 
[around it] ; [not] until My Word shall come that will make a 
way for thee on the day My covenant is fulfilled. 

" There is no way for thee at present to come from hence to 

rest, not until My Word comes, who is My Word.* Then 

will He make a way for thee, and thou shalt have rest." Then 

God called with His Word to that fire that burned around the 

* The Arabic original here reads more definitely: " not until My voice comes, 
which is My Won)," i.e., God speaking to us through His Son. 



cave, that it part itself asunder, until Adam had gone through 
it. Then the fire parted itself by God's order, and a way was 
made for Adam. 

And God withdrew His Word from Adam. 


Then Adam and Eye began again to come into the cave. 

And when they came to the way between the fire, Satan 
blew into the fire like a whirlwind, and made on Adam and 
and Eve a burning coal-fire ; so that their bodies were singed ; 
and the coal- fire scorched them. 

And from the burning of the fire Adam and Eve cried aloud, 
and said, " Lord, save us ! Leave us not to be consumed 
and plagued by this burning fire ; neither requite us for having 
transgressed Thy commandment.'' 

Then God looked upon their bodies, on which Satan had 
caused fire to burn, and God sent His angel that stayed the 
burning fire. But the wounds remained on their bodies. 

And God said unto Adam, " See Satan's love for thee, who 
pretended to give thee the Godhead and greatness ; and, behold, 
he burns thee with fire, and seeks to destroy thee from off the 

" Then look at Me, Adam ; I created thee, and how many 
times have I delivered thee out of his hand ? If not, would he 
not have destroyed thee ? 

God said again to Eve, " What is that he promised thee in 
the garden, saying, ' At the time ye shall eat of the tree, your 
eyes will be opened, and you shall become hke gods, knowing 
good and evil.' But lo ! he has burnt your bodies with fire, and 
has made you taste the taste of fire, for the taste of the garden; 
and has made you see the burning of fire, and the evil thereof, 
»nd the power it has over you. 


" Your eyes have seen the good he has taken from you, and 
in truth he has opened your eyes; and you have seen the 
garden in which ye were with Me, and ye have also seen the 
evil that has come upon you from Satan. But as to the God- 
head he cannot give it you, neither fulfil his speech to you. 
Nay, he was bitter against you and your seed, that will come 
after you." 

And God withdrew His Word from them. 


Then Adam and Eve came into the cave, yet trembling at 
the fire that had scorched their bodies. So Adam said to Eve : — 

'^ Lo, the fire has burnt our flesh in this world ; but how 
will it be when we are dead, and Satan shall punish* our souls ? 
Is not our deliverance long and far off, unless God come, and in 
mercy to us fulfil His promise ? " 

Then Adam and Eve passed into the cave, blessing them- 
selves for coming into it once more. For it was in their 
thoughts, that they never should enter it, when they saw the 
fire around it. 

But as the sun was setting the fire was [still] burning and 
nearing Adam and Eve in the cave, so that they could not 
sleep in it. After the sun had set, they went out of it. This 
was the forty-seventh day after they came out of the garden. 

Adam and Eve then came under the top of hill by f the garden 
to sleep, as they were wont. 

And they stood and prayed God to forgive them their sins, 
and then fell asleep under the summit of the mountain. 

But Satan, the hater of all good, thought within himself : 
Whereas God has promised salvation to Adam by covenant, 
and that He would deliver him out of all the hardships that 

* Lit. jndge, or sentence. f Lit. of. 



have befallen him — but has not promised me by covenant, and 
will not deliver me out of [my] hardships ; nay, since He has 
promised him that He should make him and his seed dwell in 
the kingdom in which I [once] was — I will kill Adam. The 
earth shall be rid of him ; and shall be left to me alone j so 
that when he is dead he may not have any seed left to inherit 
the kingdom that shall remain my own realm ; God will then be 
in want of me, and He will restore me to it with my hosts. 


Fifth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 

After this Satan called to his hosts, all of which came to 
him, and said unto him : — 

" 0, our Lord, what wilt thou do ? " 

He then said unto them, " Ye know that this Adam, whom 
God created out of the dust, is he who has taken our kingdom. 
Come, let us gather together and kill him ; or hurl a rock at 
him and at Eve, and crush them under it." 

When Satan's hosts heard these words, they came to the 
part of the mountain where Adam and Eve were asleep. 

Then Satan and his hosts took a huge rock, broad and even, 
and without blemish, thinking within himself, " If there should 
be a hole in the rock, when it fell on them, the hole in the rock 
might come upon them, and so they would escape and not die." 

He then said to his hosts, " Take up this stone, and throw it 
flat upon them, so that it roll not from them to somewhere 
else. And when ye have hurled it, flee and tarry not." And 
they did as he bid them. But as the rock fell down from the 
mountain upon Adam and Eve, God commanded it to become 
a kind of shed over them, that did them no harm. And so it 
was by God's order. 


But when the rock fell, the whole earth quaked with it, and 
was shaken from the size of the rock. 

And as it quaked and shook, Adam and Eve awoke from 
sleep, and found themselves under a rock like a shed.* But 
they knew not how it was ; for [when they fell asleep] they 
were under the sky, and not under a shed ; and when they saw 
it, they were afraid. 

^ Then Adam said to Eve, "Wherefore has the mountain 
bent [itself], and the earth quaked and shaken on our account? 
And why has this rock spread itself over us like a tent ? 

" Does God intend to plague us and to shut us up in this 
prison ? Or will He close the earth upon us ? 

" He is angry with us for our having come out of the cave, 
without His order ; and for our having done so of our own 
accord, without consulting Him, when we left the cave and 
came to this place.'' 

Then Eve said, " If, indeed, the earth quaked for our sake, 
and this rock forms a tent over us because of our transgres- 
sion, then woe be to us, Adam, for our punishment will be 

" But arise and pray to God to let us know concerning this, 
and what this rock is, that is spread over us like a tent." 

Then Adam stood up and prayed before the Lord, to let him 
know about this strait. And Adam thus stood praying until 
the morning. 


Then the Word of God came and said : — 
" Adam, who counselled thee, when thou camest out of 
the cave, to comef to this place ? " 

And Adam said unto God, " Lord, we came to this place 

* Tent or awning. f Lit. and earnest. 


because of the heat of the fire, that came upon us inside the 

Then the Lord God said unto Adam, " O Adam, thou 
dreadest the heat of fire for one night, but how will it be 
when thou dwellest in hell ?* 

" Yet, O Adam, fear not, neither say in thy heart that I have 
spread this rock as an awning over thee, to plague thee there- 

" It came from Satan, who had promised thee the Godhead 
and majesty. It is he who threw down this rock to kill thee 
under it, and Eve with thee, and thus to prevent you from 
living upon the earth. 

" But, in mercy for you, just as that rock was falling down 
upon you, I commanded it to form an awning over you ; and 
the rock under you, to lower itself. 

" And this sign, Adam, will happen to Me at My coming 
upon earth : Satan will raise the people of the Jews to put Me 
to death ; and they will lay Me in a rock, and seal a large stone 
upon Me, and I shall remain within that rock three days and 
three nights. 

" But on the third day I shall rise again, and it shall be 
salvation to thee, O Adam, and to thy seed, to believe in Me. 
But, O Adam, I will not bring thee from under this rock until 
three days and three nights are passed." 

And God withdrew His Word from Adam. 

But Adam and Eve abode under the rock three days and 
three nights, as God had told them. 

And God did so to them because they had left their cave and 
had come to this same place without God's order. 

But, after three days and three nights, God opened the rock 
and brought them out from under it. Their flesh was dried up, 
and their eyes and their hearts were troubled from weeping and 

* Also Arab. : how would it be if thou wert dwelling or abiding in hell ? 



Then Adam and Eve went forth and came into the Cave of 
Treasures, and they stood praying in it the whole of that day, 
until the evening. 

And this took place at the end of fifty days after they had 
left the garden. 

But Adam and Eve rose again and prayed to God in the cave 
the whole of that night, and begged for mercy from Him. 

And when the day dawned, Adam said unto Eve, " Come! 
let us go and do some work for our bodies.'' 

So they went out of the cave, and came to the northern 
border of the garden, and they sought something to cover their 
bodies withal. But they found nothing, and knew not how to 
do the work. Yet their bodies were stained,* and they were 
speechless from cold and heat. 

Then Adam stood and asked God to show him something 
wherewith to cover their bodies. 

Then came the Word of God and said unto him, " O Adam, 
take Eve and come to the sea-shore, where ye fasted before. 
There ye shall find skins of sheep, whose flesh was devoured 
by lions, and whose skins were left. Take them and make 
raiment for yourselves, and clothe yourselves withal. 


When Adam heard these words from God, he took Eve and 
removed from the northern end of the garden to the south of 
it, by the river of water, where they [once] fasted. 

But as they were going in the way, and before they reached 
that place, Satan the wicked one, had heard the Word of God 
communing with Adam respecting his covering. 

* Lit. dyed. 


It grieved him, and he hastened to the place where the 
sheep-skins were, with the intention of taking them and 
throwing them into the sea, or of burning them with fire, that 
Adam and Eve should not find them. 

But as he was about to take them, the Word of God came 
from heaven, and bound him by the side of those skins until 
Adam and Eve came near him. But as they neared him they 
were afraid of him, and of his hideous look. 

Then came the Word of God to Adam and Eve, and said to 
them, " This is he who was hidden in the serpent, and who 
deceived you, and stripped you of the garment of light and 
glory in which you were. 

*' This is he who promised you majesty and divinity. Where, 
then, is the beauty that was on him ? Where is his divinity ? 
Where is his light ? Where is the glory that rested on him ? 

" Now his figure is hideous ; he is become abominable 
among angels ; and he has come to be called Satan. 

" O Adam, he wished to take from you this earthly garment 
of sheepskins, and to destroy it, and not let you be covered 
with it. 

" What, then, is his beauty that you should have followed 
him ? And what have you gained by hearkening to him ? See 
his evil works and then look at Me ; at Me, 'your Creator, and 
at the good deeds I do you. 

" See, I bound him until you came and saw him and beheld 
his weakness, that no power is left with him." 

And God released him from his bonds. 


After this Adam and Eve said no more, but wept before 
God on account of their creation, and of their bodies that 
required an earthly covering. 


Then Adam said unto Eve, " O Eve, this [is the] skin of 
beasts with which we shall he covered. But when we have 
put it on, behold, a token of death shall have come upon us, 
inasmuch as the owners of these skins have died, and have 
wasted away. So also shall we die, and pass away.*' 

Then Adam and Eve took the skins, and went back to the 
Cave of Treasures ; aad when in it, they stood and prayed as 
they were wont. 

And they thought how they could make garments of those 
skins ; for they had no skill for it. 

Then God sent to them His angel to show them how to work 
it out. And the angel said to Adam, " Go forth, and bring 
some palm-thorns.' ' Then Adam went out, and brought some, 
as the angel had commanded him. 

Then the angel began before them to work out the skins, 
after the manner of one who prepares a shirt. And he took 
the thorns and stuck them into the skins, before their eyes. 

Then the angel again stood up and prayed God that the 
thorns in those skins should be hidden, so as to be, as it were, 
sewn with one thread. 

And so it was, by God's order ; they became garments for 
Adam and Eve, and He clothed them withal.^^ 

From that time the nakedness of their bodies was covered 
from the sight of each other's eyes. 

And this happened at the end of the fifty-first day. 

Then when Adam and Eve's bodies were covered, they stood 
and prayed, and sought mercy of the Lord, and forgiveness, 
and gave Him thanks for that He had had mercy on them, and 
had covered their nakedness. And they ceased* not from 
prayer the whole of that night. 

Then when the morn dawned at the rising of the sun, they 
saidt their prayers after their custom ; and then went out of 
the cave. 

* Lit. moVed. t I^t. prayed. 


And Adam said unto Eve, " Since we know not what there is 
to the westward of this cave, let us go forth and see it to-day." 
Then they came forth and went towards the western border. 


Sixth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 

They were not very far from the cave, when Satan came 
towards them, and hid himself* between them and the cave, 
under the form of two ravenous lions three days [without 
food], that came towards Adam and Eve, as if to break them 
in pieces and devour them. 

Then Adam and Eve wept, and prayed God to deliver them 
from their paws. 

Then the Word of God came to them, and drove away [the 
lions] from them. 

And God said unto Adam, " Adam, what seekest thou on 
the western border ? And why hast thou left of thine own 
accord the eastern border, in which was thy dwelling-place ? 

"Now, then, turn back to thy cave, and remain in it, that 
Satan do not deceive thee, nor work his purposef upon thee. 

" For in this western border, O Adam, there will go from 
thee a seed, that shall replenish it ; and that will defile them- 
selves with their sins, and with their yielding to the behests of 
Satan, and by following his works. 

" Therefore will I bring upon them the waters of a flood, 
and overwhelm them all. But I will deliver what is left of the 
righteous among them ; and I will bring them to a distant land, 
and the land in which thou dwellest now shall remain desolate 
and without one inhabitant in it." 

After God had thus discoursed to them, they went back to 

* Arab. " he stepped, or plated himself." t ^)^> counsel. 


the Cave of Treasures. But their flesh was dried up, and their 
strength failed from fasting and praying, and from the sorrow 
they felt at having trespassed against God. 


Then Adam and Eve stood up in the cave and prayed the 
whole of that night until the morning dawned. And when 
the sun was risen they both went out of the cave ; their heads 
wandering from heaviness of sorrow, and they not knowing 
whither they went. 

And they walked thus unto the southern border of the 
garden. And they began to go up that border until they 
came to the eastern border [beyond] which there was no 
[farther] space. 

And the cherub who guarded the garden was standing at 
the western gate, and guarding it against Adam and Eve, lest 
they should suddenly come into the garden. And the cherub 
turned round, as if to put them to death; according to the 
commandment God had given him. 

When Adam and Eve came to the eastern border of the 
garden — thinking in their hearts that the cherub was not 
watching — as they were standing by the gate as if wishing to 
go in, suddenly came the cherub with a flashing sword of fire 
in his hand ; and when he saw them, he went forth to kill 
them. For he was afraid lest God should destroy him if they 
went into the garden without His order. 

And the sword of the cherub seemed to flame afar off. But 
when he raised it over Adam and Eve, the flame thereof did 
not flash forth. Therefore did the cherub think that God was 
favourable to them, and was bringing them back into the 
garden. And the cherub stood wondering. 

He could not go up to Heaven to ascertain God's order 
regarding their getting into the garden ; he therefore abode 


standing by them, unable as he was to part from them ; for he 
was afraid lest they should enter the garden without leave from 
God, who [then] would destroy him. 

When Adam and Eve saw the cherub coming towards them 
with a jQaming sword of fire in his hand, they fell on their faces 
from fear, and were as dead. 

At that time the heavens and the earth shook ; and other 
cherubim came down from heaven to the cherub who guarded 
the garden, and saw him amazed and silent. 

Then, again, other angels came down nigh unto the place 
where Adam and Eve were. They were divided between joy 
and sorrow. 

They were glad, because they thought that God was favour- 
able to Adam, and wished him to return to the garden; and 
[wished to] restore him to the gladness he once enjoyed. 

But they sorrowed over Adam, because he was fallen like a 
dead [man], he and Eve; and they said in their thoughts, 
*' Adam has not died in this place ; but God has put him to 
death, for his having come to this place, and wishing to get 
into the garden without His leave." 


Then came the Word of God to Adam and Eve, and raised 
them from their dead state, saying unto them, " Why came ye 
up hither ? Do you intend to go into the garden, from which 
I brought you out ? It can not be to-day ; but [only] when the 
covenant I have made with you is fulfilled." 

Then Adam, when he heard the Word of God, and the 
fluttering of the angels whom he did not see, but only hear 
the sound of them with his ears, he and Eve wept, and said to 
the angels : — 

" Spirits, who wait upon God, look upon me, and upon my 


being unable to see you ! For when I was in my former 
bright nature, then I could see you. I sang praises as you do ; 
and my heart was far above you. 

But now, that I have transgressed, that bright nature is 
gone from me, and I am come to this miserable state.* And 
now am I come to this, that I cannot see you, and you do not 
serve me as you were wont. For I am become animal flesh. 

" Yet now, angels of God, ask God with me, to restore me 
to that wherein I was formerly ; to rescue me from this misery, 
and to remove from me the sentence of death He passed 
upon me, for having trespassed against Him." 

Then, when the angels heard these words, they all gneved 
over him ; and cursed Satan who had beguiled Adam, until he 
came from, the garden to misery ; from life to death ; from 
peace to trouble ; and from gladness to a strange land. 

Then the angels said unto Adam, " Thou didst hearken to 
Satan, and didst forsake the Word of God who created thee ; 
and thou didst believe that Satan would fulfil all he had 
promised thee. 

''But now, Adam, we will make known to thee, what 
came upon us through him, before his fall from heaven. 

" He gathered together his hosts, and deceived them, pro- 
mising them to give them a great kingdom, a divine nature ; 
and other promises he made them. 

" His hosts believed that his word was true, so they yielded 
to him, and renounced the glory of God. 

" He then sent for us — according to the ordersf in which we 
were — to come under his command, and to hearken to his vain 
promise. But we would not, and we took not his advice. 

" Then after he had fought with God, and had dealt frowardly 
with Him, he gathered together his hosts, and made war with 
us. And if it had not been for God's strength that was with 
us, we could not have prevailed against him to hurl him from 

♦ Or, figure. t Ranks, or dignities. 


" But when he fell from among us, there was great joy in 
heaven, because of his going down from us. For had he 
continued in heaven, nothing, not even one angel would have 
remained in it. 

" But God in His mercy, drove him from among us to this 
dark earth ; for he had become darkness itself and a worker of 

" And he has continued, Adam, to make war against thee, 
until he beguiled thee and made thee come out of the garden, 
to this strange land, where all these trials have come to thee. 
And death, which God brought upon him he has also brought 
to thee, Adam, because thou didst obey him, and didst 
transgress against God.*' 

Then all the angels rejoiced and praised God; and asked 
Him not to destroy Adam this time, for his having sought to 
enter the garden ; but to bear with him until the fulfilment of 
the promise ; and to help him in this world until he was free 
from Satan's hand. 


Then came the Word of God to Adam, and said unto him : — 

" O Adam, look at that garden of joy and at this earth of 
toil, and behold the angels who are in the garden — that is full 
of them, and [see] thyself alone on this earth, with Satan whom 
thou didst obey. 

" Yet, if thou hadst submitted, and been obedient to Me, and 
hadst kept My "Word, thou wouldst be with My angels in My 

" But when thou didst transgress and hearken to Satan, thou 
didst become his guest among his angels, that are full of 
wickedness ; and thou earnest to this earth, that brings forth 
to thee thorns and thistles. 


" Adam, ask him who deceived thee, to give thee the divine 
nature he promised thee, or to make thee a garden as I had 
made for thee ; or to fill thee with that same bright nature with 
which I had filled thee. 

" [Ask him] to make thee a body like the one I made thee, 
or to give thee a day of rest as I gave thee ; or to create within 
thee a reasonable soul, as I did create for thee ; or to remove 
thee hence to some other earth than this one which I gave thee. 
But, Adam, he will not fulfil even one of the things he told 

" Acknowledge, then. My favour towards thee, and My mercy 
on thee. My creature ; that I have not requited thee for thy 
transgression against Me, but in My pity for thee I have 
promised thee that at the end of the great five days and a half 
I will come and save thee.'* 

Then God said again to Adam and Eve, ''Arise, go down 
hence, lest the cherub with a sword of fire in his hand destroy 


But Adam's heart was comforted by God's words to him, and 
he worshipped before Him. 

And God commanded His angels to escort Adam [and Eve] 
to the cave with joy, instead of the fear that had come upon 

Then the angels took up Adam and Eve, and brought them 
down from the mountain by the garden, with songs and psalms, 
until they brought them to the cave. There the angels began 
to comfort and to strengthen them, and then departed from 
them towards heaven, to their Creator, who had sent them. 

But, after the angels were gone from Adam and Eve, came 
Satan, with shamefacedness, and stood at the entrance of the 
cave in which were Adam and Eve. He then called to Adam, 
and said, " Adam, come, let me speak to thee." 

Then Adam came out of the cave, thinking he was one of 
God's angels that was come to give him some good counsel. 



Seventh apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 

But when Adam came out and saw his hideous figure, lie 
was afraid of him, and said unto him, " Who art thou 1'* 

Then Satan answered and said unto him, " It is I, who hid 
myself within the serpent, and who talked to Eve, and beguiled 
her until she hearkened to my command. I am he who sent 
her, through the wiles of my speech, to deceive thee, until thou 
and she ate of the fruit of the tree, and ye came away from 
under the command of God." 

But when Adam heard these words from him, he said unto 
him, " Canst thou make me a garden as God made for me ? Or 
canst thou clothe me in the same bright nature in which" God 
had clothed me ? 

" Where is the divine nature thou didst promise to give me ? 
Where is that fair speech of thine, thou didst hold with us at 
first, when we were in the garden ? " 

Then Satan said unto Adam, " Thinkest thou, that when I 
have spoken to one about anything, I shall ever bring it to 
him or fulfil my word? Not so. For I myself have never 
even thought of obtaining what I asked. 

*' Therefore did I fall, and did 1 make you fall by that for 
which I myself fell; and [with you] also, whosoever accepts 
my counsel, falls thereby. 

" But now, Adam, by reason of thy fall thou art under my 
rule,* and I am king over thee ; because thou hast hearkened 
to me, and hast transgressed against thy God. Neither will 
there be any deliverance from my hands until the day promised 
thee by thy God." 

Again he said, "Inasmuch as we do not know the day 
agreed upon with thee by thy God, nor the hour in which thou 

* Sentence, or judgment. 


shalt be delivered, for that reason will we multiply war and 
murder upon thee and thy seed after thee. 

" This is our will and our good pleasure, that we may not 
leave one of the sons of men to inherit our orders* in heaven. 

" For as to our abode, O Adam, it is in burning fire ; and 
we will not cease our evil doing, no, not one day nor one hour. 
And I, Adam, shall sow fire upon thee when thou comest 
into the cave to dwell there.'' 

When Adam heard these words he wept and mourned, and 
said unto Eve, " Hear what he said ; that he will not fulfil 
aught of what he told thee in the garden. Did he really [then] 
become king over us ? 

" But we will ask God, who created us, to deliver us out of 
his hands." 


Then Adam and Eve spread their hands unto God, praying 
and entreating Him to drive Satan away from them ; that he 
do them no violence, and do not force them to deny God. 

Then God sent to them at once His angel, who drove away 
Satan from them. This happened about sunset, on the fifty- 
third dayt after they had come out of the garden. 

Then Adam and Eve went into the cave, and stood up and 
turned their faces to the earth, to pray to God. 

But ere they prayed Adam said unto Eve, " Lo, thou hast 
seen what temptations^ have befallen us in this land. Come, 
let us arise, and ask God to forgive us the sins we have com- 
mitted ; and we will not come out until the end of the day next 
to the fortieth. And if we die herein. He will save us." 

Then Adam and Eve arose, and joined together in entreating 

* Ranks, or stations, f There is confusion of numbers in the text. J Or, trials. 



They abode thus praying in the cave j neither did they come 
out of it, by night or by day, until their prayers went up out 
of their mouths, like a flame of fire. 


Eighth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 

But Satan, the hater of all good, did not allow them to end 
their prayers. For he called to his hosts, and they came, all 
of them. He then said to them, " Since Adam and Eve, whom 
we beguiled, have agreed together to pray to God night and 
day, and to entreat Him to deliver them, and [since they] will 
not come out of the cave until the end of the fortieth day. 

" And since they will continue their prayers as they have 
both agreed to do, that He will deliver them out of our hands, 
and restore them to their [former] state, see what we shall do 
unto them." And his hosts said unto him, " Power is thine, O 
our Lord, to do what thou listest." 

Then Satan, great in wickedness, took his hosts and came 
into the cave, in the thirtieth night of the forty days and one ; 
and he smote Adam and Eve, until he left them dead. 

Then came the Word of God unto Adam and Eve, who 
raised them from their suffering, and God said unto Adam, 
" Be strong, and be not afraid of him who has just come to 

But Adam wept and said, "Where wast Thou, O my God, 
that they should smite me with such blows, and that this 
suffering should come upon us j upon me and upon Eve, Thy 
handmaid ? " 

Then God said unto him, " Adam, see, he is lord and 
master* of all thou hast, he who said, he would give thee 

* Or, steward, trustee, patron, master of all thou hast. 


divinity. Where is his love for thee ? And where is the g^ft 
he promised ? 

''For once has it pleased him, Adam, to come to thee, 
to comfort thee, and to strengthen thee, and to rejoice with 
thee, and to send his hosts to guard thee ; because thou hast 
hearkened to him, and hast yielded to his counsel; and hast 
transgressed My commandment but has followed his behest ? " 

Then Adam wept before the Lord, and said, " O Lord 
because I transgressed a little. Thou hast sorely plagued me 
in return for it, I ask Thee to deliver me out of his hands ; or 
else have pity on me, and take my soul out of my body now in 
this strange land." 

Then God said unto Adam, "If only there had been this 
sighing and praying before, ere thou didst transgress ! Then 
wouldst thou have rest from the trouble in which thou art 

But God had patience with Adam, and let him and Eve 
remain in the cave until they had fulfilled the forty days. 

But as to Adam and Eve, their strength and flesh withered 
from fasting and praying, from hunger and thirst; for they 
had not tasted either food or drink since they left the garden ; 
nor were the functions of their bodies yet settled ; and they 
had no strength left to continue in prayer from hunger, until 
the end of the next day to the fortieth. They were fallen 
down in the cave ; yet what speech escaped from their mouths, 
was only in praises. 


Ninth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve. 

Then on the eighty-ninth day, Satan came to the cave, clad 
in a garment of light,*° and girt about with a bright girdle. 



In his hands was a staff of light, and he looked most awful : 
but his face was pleasant and his speech was sweet. 

He thus transformed himself in order to deceive Adam and 
Eve, and to make them come out of the cave, ere they had 
fulfilled the forty days. 

For he said within himself, " Now that when they had 
fulfilled the forty days' fasting and praying, God would restore 
them to their [former] estate ; but if He did not do so. He 
would still be favourable to them ; and even if He had not 
mercy on them, would He yet give them something from the 
garden to comfort them ; as already twice before.'' 

Then Satan drew near the cave in this fair appearance, and 
said : — 

" Adam, rise ye, stand up, thou and Eve, and come along 
with me, to a good land ; and fear not. I am flesh and bones 
like you ; and at first I was a creature that God created. 

" And it was so, that when He had created me, He placed in 
a garden in the north,* on the border of the world. 

" And He said to me, ' Abide here.' And I abode there 
according to His Word, neither did I transgress His command- 

" Then He made a slumber to come over me, and He 
brought thee, Adam, out of my side, but did not make thee 
abide by me. 

" But God took thee in His divine hand, and placed thee in 
a garden to the eastward. 

" Then I grieved because of thee, for that while God had 
taken thee out of my side. He had not let thee abide with me. 

" But God said unto me : ' Grieve not because of Adam, whom 
I brought out of thy side ; no harm will come to him. 

" ' For now I have brought out of his side a help-meet for 
him ; and I have given him joy by so doing.' " 

Then Satan said again, " I did not know how it is ye are in 

* Lit. of the north; t.«., the northern paradise or garden. 


this cave, nor anything about this trial that has come upon you 
— until God said to me, * Behold, Adam has transgressed, he 
whom I had taken out of thy side, and Eve also, whom I took 
out of his side ; and I have driven them out of the garden ; 
I have made them dwell in a land of sorrow and misery, 
because they transgressed against Me, and have hearkened 
to Satan. And lo, they are in suffering unto this day, the 

** Then God said unto me, ' Arise, go to them, and make them 
come to thy place, and suffer not that Satan come near them, 
and afflict them. For they are now in great misery ; and lie 
helpless* from hunger.' 

" He further said to me, * When thou hast taken them to 
thyself, give them to eat of the fruit of the Tree of Life, and 
give them to drink of the water of peace ; and clothe them in 
a garment of light, and restore fchem to their former state of 
grace, and leave them not in misery, for they came from thee. 
But grieve not over them, nor repentf of that which has come 
upon them.' 

" But when I heard this, I was sorry ; and my heart could 
not patiently bear it for thy sake, my child. 

" But, O Adam, when I heard the name of Satan, I was 
afraid, and I said within myself,J I will not come out, lest he 
ensnare me, as he did my children, Adam and Eve. 

** And I said, ' God, when I go to my children, Satan will 
meet me in the way, and war against me, as he did against 

" Then God said unto me, ' Fear not; when thou findest him, 
smite him with the staff that is in thine hand, and be not 
afraid of him, for thou art [of] old [standing] , and he shall not 
prevail against thee.' 

" Then I said, ' my Lord, I am old, and cannot go. Send 
Thy angels to bring them.' 

* Or, prostrate. f Or, regret, grieve over. 

X I-'it. ray thoughts, or mind. 


" But God said unto me, ' Angels, verily, are not like them ; 
and they will not consent to come with them. But I have 
chosen thee, because they are thy offspring, and like thee, and 
will hearken to what thou say est/ 

" God said further to me, * If thou hast not strength to walk, 
I will send a cloud to carry thee and alight thee at the entrance 
of their cave; then the cloud will return and leave thee [there]. 

" ' And if they will come with thee, I will send a cloud to 
carry thee and them.' 

" Then He commanded a cloud, and it bare me up and 
brought me to you ; and then went back. 

"And now, my children, Adam and Eve, look at my hoar 
hairs and at my feeble estate, and at my coming from that 
distant place. Come, come with me, to a place of rest." 

Then he began to weep and to sob before Adam and Eve, 
and his tears poured upon the earth like water. 

And when Adam and Eve raised their eyes and saw his 
beard, and heard his sweet talk,* their hearts softened towai'ds 
him ; they hearkened unto him, for they believed he was true. 

And it seemed to them that they really were his offspring, 
when they saw that his face was like their own; and they 
trusted him. 


Then he took Adam and Eve by the hand, and began to 
bring them out of the cave. 

But when they were come a little way out of it, God knew 
that Satan had overcome them, and had brought them out ere 
the forty days were ended, to take them to some distant place, 
and to destroy them. 

Then the Word of the Lord God again came and cursed 
Satan, and drove him away from them. 

* Or, speech. 


And God began to speak unto Adam and Eve, saying to 
them, "What made you come out of the cave, unto this 
place ? " 

Then Adam said unto God, " Didst thou create a man before 
us ? For when we were in the cave there suddenly came unto 
us a good old man who said to us, ' I am a messenger from God 
unto you, to bring you back to some place of rest/ 

" And we did believe, God, that he was a messenger from 
Thee; and we came out with him; and knew not whither we 
should go with him/' 

Then God said unto Adam, " See, that is the father of evil 
arts,* who brought thee and Eve out of the Garden of Delights. 
And now, indeed, when he saw that thou and Eve both joined 
together in fasting and praying, and that you came not out of 
the cave before the end of the forty days, he wished to make 
your purpose vain, to breakf your mutual bond ; to cut off all 
hope from you, and to drive you to some place where he might 
destroy you. 

" Because he was unable to do aught to you, unless he 
showed himself in the likeness of you. 

" Therefore did he come to you with a face like your own, 
and began to give you tokens as if they were all true.J 

" But I in mercy and with the favour I had unto you, did not 
allow him to destroy you ; but I drove him away from you. 

''Now, therefore, Adam, take Eve, and return to your 
cave, and remain in it until the morrow of the fortieth day.§ 
And when ye come out, go towards the eastern gate of the 

Then Adam and Eve worshipped God, and praised and 
blessed Him for the deliverance that had come to them from 
Him. And they returned towards the cave. This happened 
at eventide of the thirty-ninth day. 

* Or, wiles. t ^^^- alter. 

% i.e., to show yoa tokens that appeared true. 
§ The fnlfilinent of the fortieth day. 


Then Adam and Eve stood up [and] witli great zeal,* prayed 
to God, to be brought out of their wantf of strength ; for their 
strength had departed from them, through hunger and thirst 
and prayer. But they watched the whole of that night 
praying, until morning. 

Then Adam said unto Eve, " Arise, let us go towards the 
eastern gate of the garden as God told us." 

And they said their prayers as they were wont to do every 
day ; and they went out of the cave, to go near to the eastern 
gate of the garden. 

Then Adam and Eve stood up and prayed, and besought God 
to strengthen them, and to send them something to satisfy 
their hunger.*^ 

But when they had ended their prayers, they remained 
[where they were] by reason of their failing strength. 

Then came the Word of God again, and said unto them, 
"0 Adam, arise, go and bring hither two figs.^* 

Then Adam and Eve arose, and went until they drew near 
to the cave. 

Tenth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve, about the figs. 

But Satan the wicked, was envious, because of the consola- 
tion God had given them. J 

So he prevented them, and went into the cave and took the 
two figs, and buried them outside the cave, so that Adam and 
Eve should not find them. He also had in his thoughts to 
destroy them. 

But by God's mercy, as soon as those two figs were in the 
earth, God defeated Satan's counsel regarding them; and 

• Lit. labour, fervonr, or toil. t I^ck, or poverty. 

X Or, because God had comforted them. 


made them into two fruit-trees, that overshadowed the cave. 
For Satan had buried them on the eastern side of it. 

Then when the two trees were grown, and were covered with 
fruit, Satan grieved and mourned, and said, " Better were it to 
have left those figs as they were ; for now, behold, they have 
become two fruit-trees, whereof Adam will eat all the days 
of his life. Whereas I had in mind, when I buried them, to 
destroy them entirely, and to hide them for aye. 

" But God has overturned my counsel ; and would not that 
this sacred fruit should perish ; and He has made plain my 
intention, and has defeated the counsel I had formed against 
His servants.^' 

Then Satan went away ashamed, of not having^wrought out 
his design. 


But Adam and Eve, as they drew near to the cave, saw two 
fig-trees, covered with fruit, and overshadowing the cave. 

Then Adam said to Eve, " It seems to me we have gone 
astray. When did these two trees grow here ? It seems to me 
that the enemy wishes to lead us astray. Sayest thou that 
there is in the earth another cave than this ? 

" Yet, Eve, let us go into the cave, and find in it the two 
figs ; for this is our cave, in which we were. But if we should 
not find the two figs in it, then it cannot be our cave.'^ 

They went then into the cave, and looked into the four 
corners of it, but found not the two figs. 

And Adam wept, and said to Eve, " Are we come to a wrong 
cave, then, Eve ? It seems to me these two fig-trees are the 
two figs that were in the cave." And Eve said, " I, for my 
part, do not know." 

Then Adam stood up and prayed and said, " O God, Thou 


didst command us to come back to the cave, to take the two 
figs, and then to return to Thee. 

''But now, we have not found them. God, hast Thou 
taken them, and sown these two trees, or have we gone astray 
in the earth ; or has the enemy deceived us ? If it be real, 
then, God, reveal to us the secret of these two trees and 
of the two figs." 

Then came the Word of God to Adam, and said unto him, 
" Adam, when I sent thee to fetch the figs, Satan went 
before thee to the cave, took the figs, and buried them outside, 
eastward of the cave, thinking to destroy them; and not sowing 
them with good intent. 

" Not for Lis mere sake, then, have these trees grown up at 
once; but I had mercy on thee and I commanded them to 
grow. And they grew to be two large trees, that you be over- 
shadowed by their branches, and find rest ; and that I make 
you see My power and My marvellous works. 

" And, also, to show you Satan's meanness, and his evil 
works, for ever since ye came out of the garden, he has not 
ceased, no, not one day, from doing you some harm. But I 
have not given him power over you.*' 

And God said, " Henceforth, Adam, rejoice on account of 
the trees, thou and Eve ; and rest under them when ye feel 
weary. But eat not of their fruit, nor come near them.*' 

Then Adam wept, and said, '' O God, wilt Thou again kill 
us, or wilt Thou drive us away from before Thy face, and cut 
our life from off the face of the earth ? 

" God, I beseech Thee, if Thou knowest that there be in 
these trees either death or some other evil, as at the first time,* 
root them up from near our cave, and wither them ; and leave 
us to die of the heat, of hunger and of thirst. 

" For we know Thy marvellous works, God, that they are 
great, and that by Thy power Thou canst bring one thing out 

* In the garden. 


of another, without one's wish.* For Thy power can make 
rocks to become trees, and trees to become rocks/' 


Then God looked upon Adam and upon his strength of mind, 
upon his endurance of hunger and thirst, and of the heat. 
And he changed the two fig-trees into two figs, as they were at 
first, and then said to Adam and to Eve, " Each of you may take 
one fig." And they took them, as the Lord commanded them. 

And he said to them, " Go ye into the cave, and eat the figs, 
and satisfy your hunger, lest ye die.'* 

So, as God commanded them, they went into the cave, about 
the time when the sun was setting. And Adam and Eve stood 
up and prayed at the time of the setting sun. 

Then they sat down to eat the figs ; but they knew not how 
to eat them ; for they were not accustomed to eat earthly food. 
They feared also lest, if they ate, their stomach should be 
burdened and their flesh thickened, and their hearts take to 
liking earthly food. 

But while they were thus seated, God, out of pity for them, 
sent them His angel, lest they should perish of hunger and 

And the angel said unto Adam and Eve, " God says to you 
that ye have not strength to fast until death ; eat, therefore, 
and strengthen your bodies ; for ye are now animal flesh, that 
cannot subsist without food and drink.'' 

Then Adam and Eve took the figs and began to eat of them. 
But God had put into them a mixture as of savoury bread and 

Then the angel went from Adam and Eve, who ate of the 
figs until they had satisfied their hunger. Then they put by 
what remained ; but by the power of God, the figs became full 

♦ Lit. my will, or wibh. 


as before, because God blessed them. After this Adam and 
Eve arose, and prayed with a joyful heart and renewed 
strength, and praised and rejoiced abundantly the whole of 
that night. And this was the end of the eighty-third day. 


And when it was day, they rose and prayed, after their 
custom, and then went out of the cave. 

But as they felt great trouble from the food they had eaten, 
and to which they were not used, they went about in the cave 
saying to each other : — 

" What has happened to us through eating, that this pain 
should have come upon us ? Woe be to us, we shall die ! 
Better for us to have died than to have eaten; and to have 
kept our bodies pure, than to have defiled them [with food] ." 

Then Adam said to Eve, " This pain did not come to us in 
the garden, neither did we eat such bad food there. Thinkest 
thou, Eve, that God will plague us through the food that is 
in us, or that our inwards will come out ; or that God means 
to kill us with this pain before He has fulfilled His promise 
to us ? " 

Then Adam besought the Lord and said, " O Lord, let us 
not perish through the food we have eaten. Lord, smite us 
not ; but deal with us according to Thy great mercy, and 
forsake us not until the day of the promise Thou hast made us." 

Then God looked upon them, and at once fitted them for 
eating food ; as unto this day ; so that they should not perish. 

Then Adam and Eve came back into the cave sorrowful and 
weeping because of the alteration in their nature. And they 
both knew from that hour that they were altered [beings], 
that their hope of returning to the garden was now cut oflf; 
and that they could not enter it. 


For that now their bodies had strange functions; and all 
flesh that requires food and drink for its existence, cannot be 
in the garden. 

Then Adam said to Eve, " Behold, our hope is now cut off; 
and so is our trust to enter the garden. We no longer belong 
to the inhabitants of the garden; but henceforth we are earthy 
and of the dust, and of the inhabitants of the earth. We shall 
not return to the garden, until the day in which God has 
promised to save us, and to bring us again into the garden, as 
He promised us." 

Then they prayed to God that He would have mercy on them; 
after which, their mind was quieted, their hearts were broken, 
and their longing was cooled down; and they were like 
strangers on earth. That night Adam and Eve spent in the 
cave, where they slept heavily by reason of the food they had 


When it was morning, the day after they had eaten food, 
Adam and Eve prayed in the cave, and Adam said unto Eve, 
" Lo, we asked for food of God, and He gave it. But now let 
us also ask Him to give us a drink of water." 

Then they arose, and went to the bank of the stream of 
water, that was on the south border of the garden, in which 
they had before thrown themselves. And they stood on the 
bank, and prayed to God that He would command them to 
drink of the water. 

Then the Word of God came to Adam, and said unto him, 
" O Adam, thy body is become brutish, and requires water to 
drink. Take ye, and drink, thou and Eve ; give thanks and 

Adam and Eve then drew near, and drank of it, until their 
bodies felt refreshed. After having drunk, they praised G*"^'^ 


and then returned to their cave, after their former custom. 
This happened at the end of eighty-three days. 

Then on the eighty-fourth day, they took two figs and hang 
them in the cave, together with the leaves thereof, to be to 
them a sign and a blessing from God. And they placed them 
there until there should arise a posterity to them, who should 
see the wonderful things God had done to them. 

Then Adam and Eve again stood outside the cave, and 
besought God to show them some food wherewith to nourish 
their bodies. 

Then the Word of God came and said unto him, " Adam, 
go down to the westward of the cave, as far as a land of dark 
soil,* and there thou shalt find food.'* 

And Adam hearkened unto the Word of God, took Eve, and 
went down to a land of dark soil, and found there wheat 
growing, in the ear and ripe, and figs to eat; and Adam 
rejoiced over it. 

Then the Word of God came again to Adam, and said unto 
him, " Take of this wheat and make thee bread of it, to 
nourish thy body withal." And God gave Adam's heart 
wisdom, to work out the corn until it became bread. 

Adam accomplished all that, until he grew very faint and 
weary. He then returned to the cave ; rejoicing at what he 
had learned of what is done with wheat, until it is made into 
bread for one's use. 

Further details would lengthen too much the description of 
them ; we therefore cut short [our narrative] . 


First wonder that happened to Adam and Eve with Satan, 
respecting the wheat. 

But when Adam and Eve went down to the land of black 

* Or, black mud. 


mud, and came near to the wheat God had showed them, and 
saw it ripe* and ready for reaping, as they had no sickle to 
reap it withal — they girt themselves, and began to pull up the 
wheat, until it was all done. Then they made it into a heap ; 
and, faint from heat and from thirst, they went under a shady 
tree, where the breeze fanned them to sleep. 

But Satan saw what Adam and Eve had done. And he 
called his hosts, and said to them, " Since God has shown to 
Adam and Eve all about this wheat, wherewith to strengthen 
their bodies — and, lo, they are come and have made a heap of 
it, and faint from [the toil] are now asleep — come, let us set 
fire to [this heap of corn], and burn it, and let us take that 
bottle of water that is by them, and empty it out, so that they 
may find nothing to drink, and we kill them with hunger and 

" Then, when they wake up from their sleep, and seek to 
return to the cave, we will come to them in the way, and will 
lead them astray ; so that they die of hunger and thirst ; when 
they may, perhaps, deny God, and He destroy them. So shall 
we be rid of them."t 

Then Satan and his hosts threw fire upon the wheat and 
consumed it. 

But from the heat of the flame Adam and Eve awoke from 
their sleep, and saw the wheat burning, and the bucket of 
water by them, poured out. 

Then they wept and went back to the cave. 

But as they were going up from below the mountain [where 
they were], Satan and his hosts met them in the form of 
angels, praising [God]. 

Then Satan said to Adam, " Adam, why art thou so 
pained with hunger and thirst ? It seems to me that Satan 
has burnt up the wheat.'' And Adam said to him, " Ay." 

Again Satan said to Adam, " Come back with us ; we are 

* Lit. dry. t ^it. have rest from them. 


angels of God. God sent us to thee, to show thee another 
field of corn, better than that ; and beyond it is a fountain of 
good water, and many trees, where thou shalt dwell near it, 
and work the corn-field to better [purpose] than that which 
Satan has consumed/' 

Adam thought that he was true, and that they were angels 
who talked with him ; and he went back with them. 

Then Satan began to lead astray Adam and Eve eight days, 
until they both fell down as if dead, from hunger, thirst, and 
faintness. Then he fled with his hosts, and left them. 


Then God looked upon Adam and Eve, and upon what had 
come upon them from Satan, and how he had made them 

God, therefore, sent His Word, and raised up Adam and Eve 
from their state of death. 

Then, Adam, when he was raised, said, " God, Thou hast 
burnt [and taken] from us the corn Thou hadst given us, and 
Thou hast emptied out the bucket of water. And Thou hast 
sent Thy angels, who have waylaid us from the corn-field. 
Wilt Thou make us perish ? If this be from Thee, O God, 
then take away our souls ; but punish us not.'' 

Then God said to Adam, " I did not burn down the wheat, 
and I did not pour the water out of the bucket, and I did 
not send My angels to lead thee astray. 

" But it is Satan, thy master [who did it] ; he to whom thou 
hast subjected thyself; My commandment being [meanwhile] 
set aside. He it is, who burnt down the corn, and poured out 
the water, and who has led thee astray ; and all the promises 
he has made you, verily are but feint, and deceit, and a lie. 

" But now, Adam, thou shalt acknowledge My good deeds 
done to thee." 


And God told His angels to take Adam and Eve, and to 
bear them up to the field of wheat,* which they found as before, 
with the bucket full of water. There they saw a tree, and 
found on it solid manna ; and wondered at God's power. And 
the angels commanded them to eat of the manna when they 
were hungry. 

And God adjured Satan with a curse, not to come again, and 
destroy the field of corn. 

Then Adam and Eve took of the corn, and made of it an 
ofiering,f and took it and offered it up on the mountain, the 
place where they had offered up their first offering of blood. 

And they offered this oblation again on the altar they had 
built at first. And they stood up and prayed, and besought 
the Lord saying, " Thus, God, when we were in the garden, 
did our praises go up to Thee, like this offering; and our 
innocencej went up to the like incense. But now, God, 
accept this offering from us, and tarn us not back, reft§ of Thy 
mercy. || 

Then God said to Adam and Eve, " Since ye have made this 
oblation and have offered it to Me, I shall make it My flesh,^ 
when I come down upon earth to save you ; and I shall cause 
it to be offered continually upon an altar, for forgiveness and 
for mercy, unto those who partake of it duly." 

And God sent a bright fire upon the offering of Adam and 
Eve, and filled it with brightness, grace, and light ; and the 
Holy Ghost came down upon that oblation. 

Then God commanded an angel to take fire-tongs, like a 
spoon,** and with it to take an offering and bring it to Adam 

* Lit. place, 
f 'O (Ttroc a Kai b oIvoq rwv ay'iutv fivarripiwv aiviyfiara. S. Athan., QucBSt. 
Ixvii, vol. ii, p. 414. 

X Or, purity. § Or, bare. 

II The Arabic adds : And God wondered at Adam's wisdom, and Adam's deed 
pleased bim. 

% Or, body. ** Used at the Eucharist in the East. 



and Eve. And the angel did so, as God had commanded him, 
and offered it to them. 

And the souls of Adam and Eve were brightened, and their 
hearts were filled with joy and gladness and with the praises of 

And God said to Adam, " This shall be unto you a custom, 
to do so, when affliction and sorrow come upon you. But your 
deliverance and your entrance into the garden, shall not be 
until the days are fulfilled, as [agreed] between you and Me ; 
were it not so, I would, of My mercy and pity for you, bring 
you back to My garden and to My favour for the sake of the 
offering you have just made to My name.'' 

Adam rejoiced at these words which he heard from God ; 
and he and Eve worshipped before the altar, to which they 
bowed, and then went back to the Cave of Treasures. 

And this took place at the end of the twelfth day after 
the eightieth day, from the time Adam and Eve came out of 
the garden. 

And they stood up the whole night praying until morning -, 
and then went out of the cave. 

Then Adam said to Eve, with joy of heart, because of the 
offering they had made to God, and that had been accepted of 
Him, " Let us do this three times every week, on the fourth 
day [Wednesday], on the preparation day [Friday], and on 
the Sabbath [Sunday] , all the days of our life.'' 

And as they agreed to these words between themselves, God 
was pleased with their thoughts, and with the resolution they 
had each taken with the other. 

After this, came the Word of God to Adam, and said, 
" Adam, thou hast determined beforehand the days in which 
sufferings shall come upon Me, when I am made fiesh; for 
they are th« fourth [Wednesday], and the preparation day 
[Friday] . 

" But as to the first day, I created in it all things, and I 
raised the heavens. And, again, through My rising again on 


this day, will I create joy, and raise them on high, who believe 
in Me ; Adam, offer this oblation, all the days of thy life/* 

Then God withdrew His Word from Adam. 

But Adam continued to offer this oblation thus, every week 
three times, until the end of seven weeks. And on the first 
day, which is the fii'tieth, Adam made an offering as he was 
wont, and he and Eve took it and came to the altar before God, 
as He had taught them. 


Twelfth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve, ivhile Adam 
was praying over the offering upon the altar ; when Sa,tan smote 

Then Satan, the hater of all good, envious of Adam and of 
his offering through which he found favour with God, hastened 
and took a sharp stone from among sharp iron-stones ; appeared 
in the form of a man, and went and stood by Adam and Eve. 

Adam was then offering on the altar, and had begun to 
pray, with his hands spread unto God. 

Then Satan hastened with the sharp iron-stone he had with 
him, and with it pierced Adam on the right side, whence 
flowed blood and water, then Adam fell upon the altar like a 
corpse. And Satan fled. 

Then Eve came, and took Adam and placed him below the 
altar. And there she stayed, weeping over him ; while a 
stream of blood flowed from Adam's side upon his offering. 

But God looked upon the death of Adam. He then sent His 
Word, and raised him up and said unto him, '* Fulfil thy 
offering, for indeed, Adam, it is worth much, and there is no 
shortcoming* in it.'* 

God said further unto Adam, " Thus will it also happen t» 

* Also : lack, or imperfection, defect, or deficiency. 



Me, on the earth, when I shall be pierced and blood shall flow, 
blood and water from My side, and run over My body, which 
is the true offering ; and which shall be offered on the altar as 
a perfect offering/' 

Then God commanded Adam to finish his offering, and when 
he had ended it he worshipped before God, and praised Him 
for the signs He had showed him. 

And God healed Adam in one day, which is the end of the 
seven weeks ; and that is the fiftieth day. 

Then Adam and Eve returned from the mountain, and went 
into the Cave of Treasures, as they were used to do. This 
completed for Adam and Eve, one hundred and forty days since 
their coming out of the garden. 

Then they both stood up that night and prayed to God. 
And when it was morning, they went out, and went down 
westward of the cave, to the place where their com was, and 
there rested under the shadow of a tree, as they were wont. 

But [when there] a multitude of beasts came all round 
them. It was Satan's doing, in his wickedness ; in order to 
wage war against Adam through marriage. 


Thirteenth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve, to maJee 
war against him, through his marriage with Eve. 

After this Satan, the hater of all good, took the form of an 
angel, and with him two others, so that they looked like the 
three angels who had brought to Adam, gold, incense, and 

They passed before Adam and Eve while they were under 
the tree, and greeted Adam and Eve with fair words that were 
full of guile. 

But when Adam and Eve saw their comely mien, and [heard] 


their sweet speech, Adam rose, welcomed them, and brought 
them to Eve, and they remained all together; Adam's heart 
the while, being glad because he thought concerning them, 
that they were the same angels, who had brought him gold, 
incense, and myrrh. 

Because, when they came to Adam the first time, there 
came upon him from them, peace and joy, through their 
bringing him good tokens ; so Adam thought that they were 
come a second time to give him other tokens for him to rejoice 
withal. For he did not know it was Satan ; therefore did he 
receive them with joy and companied with them. 

Then Satan, the tallest of them, said, " Rejoice, Adam, 
and be glad. Lo, God has sent us to thee to tell thee some- 

And Adam said, '^ What is it ? " Then Satan answered, 
" It is a light thing, yet it is a word of God, wilt thou hear it 
from us and do it ? But if thou hearest not, we will return 
to God, and tell Him that thou wouldest not receive His word." 

And Satan said again to Adam, " Fear not, neither let a 
trembling come upon thee ; dost not thou know us V 

But Adam said, " I know you not." 

Then Satan said to him, " I am the angel who brought thee 
gold, and took it to the cave ; this other one is he who brought 
thee incense ; and that third one, is he who brought thee myrrh 
[when thou wast] on the top of the mountain, and who carried 
thee to the cave. 

But as to [the other angels] our fellows, who bare you to 
the cave, God has not sent them with us this time ; for He 
said to us, " You suffice." 

So when Adam heard these words he believed them, and 
said to these angels, " Speak the word of God, that I may 
receive it." 

And Satan said unto him, " Swear, and promise me that 
thou wilt receive it." 

Then Adam said, " I know not how to swear and promise." 


And Satan said to him, " Hold out thy hand, and put it 
inside my hand." 

Then Adam held out his hand, and put it into Satan's hand ; 
when Satan said unto him, " Say, now — so true* as God is 
living, rational, and speaking", who raised the heavens in the 
space, and established the earth upon the waters, and has 
created me out of the four elements, and out of the dust of the 
earth — I will not breakf my promise, nor renounce my word." 
And Adam swore thus. 

Then Satan said to him, " Lo, it is now some time since 
thou camest out of the garden, and thou knowest neither 
wickedness nor evil. But now God says to thee, to take Eve 
who came out of thy side, and to wed her, that she bear thee 
children, to comfort thee, and to drive from thee trouble and 
sorrow ; now this thing is not difficult, neither is there any 
scandal in it to thee." 


But when Adam heard these words from Satan, he sorrowed 
much, because of his oath and of his promise, and said, " Shall 
I commit adulteiy with my [flesh and my] bones, and shall I 
sin against myself, for God to destroy me, and to blot me out 
from ofl" the face of the earth ? 

" Since, when at first, I ate of the tree, He drove me out of 
the garden into this strange land, and deprived me of [my] 
bright nature, and brought death upon me. If, then, I should 
do this, He will cut off my life from the earth, and He will cast 
me into hell, and will plague me there a long time. 

" But God never spoke the words thou hast told me ; and 
ye are not God's angels, nor yet sent from Him. But ye are 
devils, come to me under the false appearance of angels. Away 
from me ; ye cursed of God !" 

* Lit. as indeed. •f Lit. foul. 


Then those devils fled from before Adam. And he and Eve 
arose, and returned to the Cave of Treasures, and went into it. 

Then Adam said to Eve, " If thou sawest what I did, tell 
it not ; for I sinned against God in swearing by His great 
name, and I have placed my hand another time into that of 
Satan.*' Eve, then, held her peace, as Adam told her. 

Then Adam arose, and spread his hands unto God, beseeching 
and entreating Hitn with tears, to forgive him what he had 
done. And Adatn remained thus standing and praying forty 
days and forty nights. He neither ate nor drank until he 
dropped down upon the earth from hunger and thirst. 

Then God sent His Word unto Adam, who raised him up 
from where he lay, and said unto him, " Adam, why hast 
thou sworn by My name, and why hast thou made agreement 
with Satan another time ? " 

But Adam wept, and said, " God, forgive me, for I did 
this unwittingly ; believing they were God's angels." 

And God forgave Adam, saying to him, " Beware of Satan." 

And He withdrew His Word from Adam. 

Then Adam's heart was comforted ; and he took Eve, and 
they went out of the cave, to make some food for their bodies. 

But from that day Adam struggled in his mind about his 
wedding Eve ; afraid as he was to do it, lest God should be 
wroth with him. 

Then Adam and Eve went to the river of water, and sat on 
the bank, as people do when they enjoy themselves. 

But Satan was jealous of them ; and would destroy them. 


Fourteenth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve ; as coming 
up out of the river, in the similitude of young maidens. 

Then Satan, and ten from his hosts, transformed themselves 
into maidens, unlike any others in the whole world for grace. 


They came up out of the river in presence of Adam and Eve, 
and they said among themselves, " Come, we will look at the 
faces of Adam and of Eve, who are of the men upon earth. 
How beautiful they are, and how different is their look from 
our own faces." Then they came to Adam and Eve, and 
greeted them ; and stood wondering at them. 

Adam and Eve looked at them also, and wondered at their 
beauty, and said, " Is there, then, under us, another world, 
with such beautiful creatures as these in it ? " 

And those maidens said to Adam and Eve, " Yes, indeed, we 
are an abundant creation." 

Then Adam said to them, " But how do you multiply ? " 

And they answered him, " We have husbands who wedded 
us, and we bear them children, who grow up, and who in their 
turn wed and are wedded, and also bear children ; and thus we 
increase. And if so be, O Adam, thou wilt not believe us, we 
will show thee our husbands and our children." 

Then they shouted over the river as if to call their husbands 
and their children, who came up from the river, men and 
children ; and every one came to his wife, his children being 
with him. 

But when Adam and Eve saw them, they stood dumb, and 
wondered at them. 

Then they said to Adam and Eve, " You see our husbands 
and our children, wed Eve as we wed our wives, and you shall 
have children the same as we." This was a device of Satan to 
deceive Adam. 

Satan also thought within himself, " God at first commanded 
Adam concerning the fruit of the tree, saying to him, ' Eat 
not of it ; else of death thou shalt die.' But A dam ate of it, 
and yet God did not kill him; He only decreed upon him 
death, and plagues and trials, until the day he shall come out 
of his body. 

" Now, then, if I deceive him to do this thing, and to wed 
Eve without God's commandment, God will kill him then." 


Therefore did Satan work this apparition before Adam and 
Eve; because he sought to kill him, and to make him disappear 
from off the face of the earth. 

Meanwhile the fire of sin came upon Adam, and he thought 
of committing sin. But he restrained himself, fearing lest if 
he followed this advice [of Satan] God would put him to 

Then Adam and Eve arose, and prayed to God, while Satan 
and his hosts went down into the river, in presence of Adam 
and Eve ; to let them see that they were going back to their 
own regions. 

Then Adam and Eve went back to the Cave of Treasures, 
as they were wont ; about evening time. 

And they both arose and prayed to God that night. Adam 
remained standing in prayer, yet not knowing how to pray, by 
reason of the thoughts of his heart regarding his wedding Eve; 
and he continued so until morning. 

And when light arose, Adam said unto Eve, " Arise let us 
go below the mountain, where they brought us gold, and let 
us ask the Lord concerning this matter." 

Then Eve said, " What is that matter, Adam V 

And he answered her, " That I may request the Lord to 
inform me about wedding thee ; for I will not do it without 
His order, lest He make us perish, thee and me. For those 
devils have set my heart on fire, with thoughts of what they 
showed us, in their sinful apparitions.'' 

Then Eve said to Adam, "Why need we go below the 
mountain ? Let us rather stand up and pray in our cave to 
God, to let us know whether this counsel is good or not." 

Then Adam rose up in prayer and said, " God, Thou 
knowest that we transgressed against Thee, and from the 
moment we transgressed, we were bereft of our bright nature ; 
and our body became brutish, requiring food and drink ; and 
with animal desires. 

" Command us, God, not to give way to them without Thy 


order, lest Thou bring us to nothing. For if Thou give us not 
the order, we shall be overpowered, and follow that advice [of 
Satan] ; and Thou wilt again make us perish. 

" If not, then take our souls from us ; let us be rid of this 
animal lust. And if Thou give us no order respecting this 
thing, then sever Eve from me, and me from her ; and place 
us each far away from the other. 

" Yet again, God, when Thou hast put us asunder from 
each other, the devils will deceive us with their apparitions, 
and destroy our hearts, and deJBle our thoughts towards each 
other. Yet if it is not each of us towards the other, it will, at 
all events, be through their appearance when they show them- 
selves to us." Here Adam ended his prayer. 


Tlien God looked upon the words of Adam that they were 
true, and that he could long await [His order], respecting the 
counsel of Satan. 

And God approved Adam in what he had thought concerning 
this, and in the prayer he had offered in His presence ; and 
the Word of God came unto Adam and said to him, " Adam, 
if only thou hadst had this caution at first, ere thou camest 
out of the garden into this land V 

After that, God sent His angel who had brought gold, and 
the angel who had brought incense, and the angel who had 
brought myrrh to Adam, that they should infer oi him 
respecting his wedding Eve. 

Then those angels said to Adam, " Take the gold and give 
it to Eve as a wedding gift, and betroth her ; then give her 
some incense and myrrh as a present ; and be ye, thou and she, 
one flesh.** 

Adam hearkened to the angels, and took the gold and put 


it into Eve's bosom in her garment ; and bethrothed her with 
his hand. 

Then the angels commanded Adam and Eve, to arise and 
pray forty days and forty nights ; and after that, that Adam 
should come in to his wife ; for then this would be an act pure 
and undefiled ; and he should have children who would 
multiply, and replenish the face of the earth. 

Then both Adam and Eve received the words of the angels ; 
and the angels departed from them. 

Then Adam and Eve began to fast and to pray, until the end 
of the forty days ; and then they came together, as the angels 
had told them. And from the time Adam left the garden until 
he wedded Eve, were two hundred and twenty-thi*ee days, that 
is seven months and thirteen days. 

Thus was Satan's war with Adam defeated. 


And they dwelt on the earth working, in order to continue 
in the well-being of their bodies ; and were so until the nine 
months of Eve's child-bearing were ended, and the time drew 
near when she must be delivered. 

Then she said unto Adam, "ITiis cave is a pure spot by 
reason of the signs [wrought in] it since [we left] the garden ; 
and we shall again pray in it. It is not meet, then, that 
I should bring forth in it ; let us rather repair to that of the 
sheltering rock, which Satan hurled at us, when he wished to 
kill us with it ; but that was held up and spread as an awning 
over us by the command of God ; and formed a cave.'' 

Then Adam removed Eve to that cave ; and when the time 
came that she should bring forth, she travailed much. So was 
Adam sorry, and his heart suffered for her sake ; for she was 
nigh unto death ; that the word of God to her should be 


fulfilled : " In suffering slialt thou bear a child, and in sorrow 
shalt thou bring forth thy child." 

But when Adam saw the strait in which Eve was, he arose 
and prayed to God, and said, " Lord, look upon me with the 
eye of Thy mercy, and bring her out of her distress." 

And Grod looked at His maid-servant Eve, and delivered her, 
and she brought forth her first-bom son, and with him a 
daughter. Then Adam rejoiced at Eve's deliverance, and also 
over the children she had borne him. And Adam ministered 
unto Eve in the cave, until the end of eight days ; when they 
named the son Cain,* and the daughter Luluwa.f*^ 

The meaning of Cain is ''hater," because he hated his 
sister in their mother's womb ; ere they came out of it. 
Therefore did Adam name him Cain. 

But Luluwa means " beautiful," because she was more 
beautiful than her mother. 

Then Adam and Eve waited until Cain and his sister were 
forty days old, when Adam said unto Eve, " We will make an 
ofiering and offer it up in behalf of the children." 

And Eve said, " We will make one offering for the first-bom 
son ; and afterwards we shall make one for the daughter." 


Then Adam prepared an ofiering, and he and Eve offered 
it up for their children, and brought it to the altar they had 
built at first. 

And Adam offered up the offering, and besought God to 
accept his offering. 

Then God accepted Adam's offering, and sent a light from 
heaven that shone upon the offering. And Adam and the son 
drew near to the offering, but Eve and the daughter did not 
approach unto it. 

* Eth. Cail. f " Lulawa " is the Arabic for " a pearl." 


Then Adam came down from upon the altar, and they were 
joyful; and Adam and Eve waited until the daughter was 
eighty days old ; then Adam prepared an offering and took it 
to Eve and to the children ; and they went to the altar, where 
Adam offered it up, as he was wont, asking the Lord to accept 
his offering. 

And the Lord accepted the offering of Adam and Eve. Then 
Adam, Eve, and the children, drew near together, and came 
down from the mountain, rejoicing. 

But they returned not to the cave in which they were born ; 
but came to the Cave of Treasures, in order that the children 
should go round it, and be blessed with the tokens [brought] 
from the garden. 

But after they had been blessed with these tokens, they 
went back to the cave in which they were born. 

However, before Eve had offered up the offering, Adam had 
taken her, and had gone with her to the river of water, in 
which they threw themselves at first ; and there they washed 
themselves. Adam washed his body and Eve piers also] 
clean, after the suffering and distress that had come upon 

But Adam and Eve, after washing themselves in the river of 
water, returned every night to the Cave of Treasures, where 
they prayed and were blessed ; and then went back to their 
cave, where the children were born. 

So did Adam and Eve until the children had done sucking. 
Then, when they were weaned, Adam made an offering for the 
souls of his children ; other than the three times he made an 
offering for them, every week. 

When the days of nursing the children were ended. Eve 
again conceived, and when her days were accomplished she 
brought forth another son and daughter ; and they named the 
son Abel, and the daughter Aklemia. 

Then at the end of forty days, Adam made an offering for 
the son, and at the end of eighty days he made another offering 


for the daughter, and did by them, as he had done before by 
Cain and his sister Luluwa. 

He brought them to the Cave of Treasures, where they 
received a blessing, and then returned to the cave where they 
were born. After the birth of these, Eve ceased from child- 


And the children began to wax stronger, and to grow in 
stature; but Cain was hard-hearted, and ruled over his younger 

And oftentimes when his father made an offering, he would 
remain [behind] and not go with them, to offer up. 

But, as to Abel, he had a meek heart, and was obedient to 
his father and mother, whom he often moved to make an 
offering, because he loved it ; and prayed and fasted much. 

Then came this sign to Abel. As he was coming into the 
Cave of Treasures, and saw the golden rods, the incense and 
the myrrh, he inquired of his parents Adam and Eve con- 
cerning them, and said unto them, " How did you come by 
these V 

Then Adam told him all that had befallen them. And Abel 
felt deeply about what his father told him. 

Furthermore his father Adam told him of the works of God, 
and of the garden ; and after that, he remained behind his 
father the whole of that night in the Cave of Treasures. 

And that night, while he was praying, Satan appeared unto 
him under the figure of a man, who said to him, " Thou hast 
oftentimes moved thy father to make an offering, to fast and to 
pray, therefore I will kill thee, and make thee perish from 
this world.^' 

But as for Abel, he prayed to God, and drove away [Satan] 
from him ; and believed not the words of the devil. Then when 


it was day, an angel of God appeared uuto him, wlio said to 
him, " Shorten neither fasting, prayer, nor offering up an 
oblation unto thy God. For, lo, the Lord has accepted thy 
prayer. Be not afraid of the figure which appeared unto thee 
in the night, and who cursed thee unto death.'' And the 
angel departed from him. 

Then when it was day, Abel came to Adam and Eve, and 
told them of the vision he had seen. But when they heard it, 
they grieved much over it, yet said nothing to him [about it] ; 
they only comforted him. 

But as to hard-hearted Cain, Satan came to him by night, 
showed himself and said unto him, " Since Adam and Eve love 
thy brother Abel much more than they love thee, and wish to 
join him in marriage to thy beautiful sister, because they love 
him ; but wish to join thee in marriage to his ill-favoured 

sister, because they hate thee ; 

" Now, therefore, I counsel thee, when they do that, to kill 

thy brother; then thy sister will be left for thee; and his 

sister will be cast away." 

And Satan departed from him. But the wicked One 

remained [behind] in the heart of Cain, who sought many 

a time, to kill his brother. 


But when Adam saw that the elder brother hated the 
younger, he endeavoured -to soften their hearts, and said unto 
Cain, " Take, my son, of the fruits of thy sowing, and make 
an offering unto God, that He may forgive thee thy wickedness 
and thy sin." 

He said also to Abel, " Take thou of thy sowing* and make 
an offering and bring it to God, that He may forgive thy 
wickedness and thy sin." 

♦ Different from Gen. iv, 4. 


Then Abel hearkened unto his father's voice, and took of his 
sowing, and made a good offering, and said to his father, 
Adam, " Come with me, to show me how to offer it up." 

And they went, Adam and Eve with him, and showed him 
how to offer up his gift upon the altar. Then after that, they 
stood up and prayed that God would accept Abel's offering. 

Then God looked upon Abel and accepted his offering. And 
God was more pleased with Abel than with his offering, 
because of his good heart and pure body. There was no trace 
of guile in him. 

Then they came down from the altar, and went to the cave 
in which they dwelt. But Abel, by reason of his joy at having 
made his offering, repeated it three times a week, after the 
example of his father Adam. 

But as to Cain, he took no pleasure in offering ; but after 
much anger on his father's part, he offered up his gift once ; 
and when he did offer up, his eye was on the offering he 
made,*^ and he took. the smallest of his sheep for an offering, 
and his eye was again on it. 

Therefore God did not accept his offering, because his heart 
was full of murderous* thoughts. 

And they all thus lived together in the cave in which Eve 
had brought forth, until Cain was fifteen years old, and Abel 
twelve years old.f 


Then Adam said to Eve, " Behold the children are grown 
up ; we must think of finding wives for them." 
Then Eve answered, " How can we do it ?" 

* Lit. destraction. 

t MicLr. Tankhuma (fol. 5), however, says that Cain and Abel were then about 
forty years old. 


Then Adam said to her, "We will join Abel's sister in 
marriage to Cain,* and Cain's sister to Abel." 

Then said Eve to Adam, " I do not like Cain because he is 
hard-hearted; but let them bide until we offer up unto the 
Lord in their behalf/' 

And Adam said no more. 

Meanwhile Satan came to Cain in the figure of a man of the 
field, and said to him, '' Behold Adam and Eve have taken 
counsel together about the marriage of you two j and they 
have agreed to marry Abel's sister to thee, and thy sister to 

" But if it was not that I love thee, I would not have told 
thee this thing. Yet if thou wilt take my advice, and hearken 
to me, I will bring thee on thy wedding day beautiful robes, 
gold and silver in plenty, and my relations will attendf thee." 

Then Cain said with joy, " Where are thy relations ?" 

And Satan answered, " My relations are in a garden in the 
north, whither I once meant to bring thy father Adam ; but he 
would not accept my offer. 

" But thou, if thou wilt receive my [words] and if thou wilt 
come unto me after thy wedding, thou shalt rest from the 
misery in which thou art ; and thou shalt rest and be better 
off than thy father Adam." 

At these words of Satan Cain opened his ears, and leant 
towards his speech. 

And he did not remain in the field, but he went to Eve, his 
mother, and beat her, and cursed her, and said to her, " Why 
are ye about taking my sister to wed her to my brother ? Am 
I dead?" 

His mother, however, quieted J him, and sent him to the field 
where he had been. 

* Adam did so, in order to avoid marrying the brother to his sister of the same 
birth, and thus to prevent, as far as possible, consanguinity. Masudi., ch, iii, 
p. 63. 

f Lit. assist or help. 

X Or, beguiled. 



Then wlien Adam came, she told him of what Cain had 

But Adam grieved and held his peace, and said not a word. 

Then on the morrow Adam said unto Cain his son, " Take of 
thy sheep, young and good,*' and offer them up unto thy God ; 
and I will speak to thy brother, to make unto his God an 
offering of corn." 

They both hearkened to their father Adam, and they took 
their offerings, and offered them up on the mountain by the 

But Cain behaved haughtily towards his brother, and thrust 
him from the altar, and would not let him offer up his gift 
upon the altar ; but he offered his own upon it, with a proud 
heart, full of guile, and fraud. 

But as for Abel, he set up stones [that were] near at hand, 
and upon that, he offered up his gift with a heart humble and 
free from guile. 

Cain was then standing by the altar on which he had offered 
up his gift ; and he cried unto God to accept his offering ; but 
God did not accept it from him; neither did a divine fire come 
down to consume his offering. 

But he remained standing over against the altar, out of 
humour and wroth, looking towards his brother Abel, to see if 
God would accept his offering or not. 

And Abel prayed unto God to accept his offering. Then a 
divine fire came down and consumed his offering. And God 
smelled the sweet savour of his offering ; because Abel loved 
Him and rejoiced in Him. 

And because God was well pleased with him He sent him an 
angel of light in the figure of man who had partaken of his 
offering, because He had smelled the sweet savour of his 
offering, and they comforted Abel and strengthened his 

But Cain was looking on all that took place at his brother's 
offering, and was wroth on account of it. 


Then he opened his mouth and blasphemed God, because He 
had not accepted his offering. 

But God said unto Cain, " Wherefore is thy countenance 
sad ?** Be righteous, that I may accept thy offering. Not 
against Me hast thou murmured, but against thyself." 

And God said this to Cain in rebuke, and. because He 
abhorred him and his offering. 

And Cain came down from the altar, his colour changed and 
of a woeful countenance, and came to his father and mother and 
told them all that had befallen him. And Adam grieved much 
because God had not accepted Cain's offering. 

But Abel came down rejoicing, and with a gladsome heart, 
and tcld his father and mother how God had accepted his 
offering. And they rejoiced at it and kissed his face. 

And Abel said to his father, " Because Cain thrust me from 
the altar, and would not allow me to offer my gift upon it, 
I made an altar for myself and offered [my] gift upon it.'* 

But when Adam heard this he was very sorry, because it 
was the altar he had built at first, and upon which he had 
offered his own gifts. 

As to Cain, he was so sullen and so angry that he went into 
the field, where Satan came to him and said to him, " Since thy 
brother Abel has taken refuge with thy father Adam, because 
thou didst thrust him from the altar, they have kissed his face, 
and they rejoice over him, far more than over thee.'* 

When Cain heard these words of Satan, he was filled with 
rage ; and he let no one know. But he was laying wait to kill 
his brother, until he brought him into the cave, and then said 
to hitn : — * 

" O brother, the country is so beautiful, and there are such 
beautiful and pleasurable trees in it, and charming to look at ! 
But brother, thou hast never been one day in the field to take 
thy pleasure therein. 

* Lit. field. 



" To-day, O, my brother, I very much wish thou wouldest 
come with me into the field,*^ to enjoy thyself and to bless our 
fields and our flocks, for thou art righteous, and I love thee 
much, O, my brother ! but thou hast estranged thyself from 

Then Abel consented to go with his brother Cain into the 

But before going out, Cain said to Abel, " Wait for me, until 
I fetch a staff, because of wild beasts.'' 

Then Abel stood [waiting] in his innocence. But Cain, the 
fro ward, fetched a staff and went out. 

And they began, Cain and his brother Abel, to walk in the 
way ; Cain talking to him, and comforting him, to make him 
forget everything. 


Murder of Abel the Justy whom his brother, Gain the Injidel, 

did kill. 

And so they went on, until they came to a lonely place, 
where there were no sheep ; then Abel said to Cain, " Behold, 
my brother, we are weary of walking ; for we see none of the 
trees, nor of the fruits, nor of the verdure, nor of the sheep, 
nor any one of the things of which thou didst tell me. Where 
are those sheep of thine thou didst tell me to bless ? " 

Then Cain said to him, " Come on, and presently thou shalt 
see many beautiful things, but go before me, until I come up 
to thee.'' 

Then went Abel forward, but Cain remained behind him. 

And Abel was walking in his innocence, without guile ; not 
believing his brother would kill him. 

Then Cain, when he came up to him, comforted him with 


[his] talk, walking a little behind him ; then he hastened, and 
smote him with the staff, blow upon blow, until he was 

But when Abel fell down upon the ground, seeing that his 
brother meant to kill him, he said to Cain, " O, my brother, 
have pity on me. By the breasts we have sucked, smite me 
not ! By the womb that bare us and that brought us into the 
world, smite me not unto death with that staff ! If thou wilt 
kill me, take one of these large stones, and kill me outright." 

Then Cain, the hard-hearted, and cruel murderer, took a 
large stone, and smote his brother with it upon the head,^ until 
his brains oozed out, and he weltered in his blood, before him. 
And Cain repented not of what he had done. 

But the earth, when the blood of righteous Abel fell upon 
it, trembled, as it drank his blood, and would have brought 
Cain to naught [for it] . 

And the blood of Abel cried mysteriously to God, to avenge 
him of his murderer. 

Then Cain began at once to dig the earth [wherein to lay] 
his brother ;*^ for he was trembling from the fear that came upon 
him, when he saw the earth tremble on his account. 

He then cast his brother into the pit [he made] , and covered 
him with dust.^ But the earth would not receive him ; but it 
threw him up at once. 

Again did Cain dig the earth and hid his brother in it ; but 
again did the earth throw him up on itself; until three times 
did the earth thus throw up on itself the body of Abel. The 
muddy earth threw him up the first time, because he was not 
the first creation ; and it threw him up the second time and 
would not receive him, because he was righteous and good, and 
was killed without a cause ; and the earth threw him up the 
third time and would not receive him, that there might remain 
before his brother a witness against him. 

And so did the earth mock Cain, until the Word of God, 
came to him concerninof his brother. 


Then was God angry, and much displeased* at Abel's death ; 
and He thundered from heaven, and lightnings went before 
Him, and the Word of the Lord God came from heaven to 
Cain, and said unto him, " Where is Abel thy brother ?" 

Then Cain answered with a proud heart and a gruff voice, 
" How, O God ? am I my brother's keeper V* 

Then God said unto Cain, " Cursed be the earth that has 
drunk the blood of Abel thy brother; and thou, be thou 
trembling and shaking ; and this will be a sign unto thee, that 
whosoever finds thee, shall kill thee." 

But Cain wept because God had said those words to him ; 
and Cain said unto Him, " O God, whosoever finds me shall 
kill me, and I shall be blotted out from the face of the 

Then God said unto Cain, " Whosoever shall find thee shall 
not kill thee ;" because before this, God had been saying to 
Cain, "1 shall forego seven punishments on him who kills 
Cain." For as to the word of God to Cain, "Where is thy 
brother ?" God said it in mercy for him, to try aud make him 

For if Cain had repented at that time, and had said, " God, 
forgive me my sin, and the murder of my brother," God would 
then have forgiven him his sin. 

And as to God saying to Cain, " Cursed be the ground that 
has drunk the blood of thy brother "*^ that also, was God's 
mercy on Cain. For God did not curse him, but He cursed 
the ground ; although it was not the ground that had killed 
Abel, and had committed iniquity. 

For it was meet that the curse should fall upon the murderer ; 
yet in mercy did God so manage His thoughts as that no one 
should know it, and turn away from Cain. 

And He said to him, '* Where is thy brother ?" To which 
he answered and said, " I know not." Then the Creator said 
to him, " Be trembling and quaking." 

* Lit. fighed over, was grieved. 


Then Cain trembled and became terrified ; and througb this 
sign did God make him an example*^" before all the creation, as 
the murderer of his brother. Also did God bring trembling 
and terror upon him, that he might see the peace in which he 
was at first, and see also the trembling and terror he endured 
at the last ; so that he might humble himself before God, and 
repent of his sin, and seek the peace he enjoyed at first. 

And [in] the word of God that said, " I will forego seven 
punishments on whomsoever kills Cain,'^ God was not seeking 
to kill Cain with the sword, but He sought to make him die of 
fasting, and praying and weeping by hard rule, until the time 
that he was delivered from his sin. 

And the seven punishments are the seven generations during 
which God awaited Cain for the murder of his brother. 

But as to Cain, ever since he had killed his brother, he 
could find no rest in any place ; but went back to Adam and 
Eve, trembling, terrified, and defiled with blood. 

When they saw him they grieved and wept, not knowing 
whence came his trembling and terror, and the blood with 
which he was bespattered. 

Cain, then, came running to his sister that was bom with 
him. But when she saw him, she was affrighted, and said 
unto him, " 0, my brother, wherefore art thou come thus 
trembling V And he said to her, " I have killed my brother 
Abel in a certain place." 

• Or, notorioos. 




When Luluwa heard Cain's words, she wept and went to call 
her father and mother, and told them how that Cain had killed 
his brother Abel. 

Then they all cried aloud and lifted up their voices, and 
slapped their faces, and threw dusfc upon their heads, and rent 
asunder their garments, and went out and came to the place 
where Abel was killed. 

And they found him lying on the earth, killed, and beasts 
around him ; while they wept and cried because of this just 
one. From his body, by reason of its purity, went forth a 
smell of sweet spices. And Adam carried him, his tears 
streaming down his face ; and went to the Cave of Tres^sures, 
where he laid him, and wound him up with sweet spices and 

And Adam and Eve continued by the burial of him in great 
grief a hundred and forty days. Abel was fifteen and a half 
years old, and Cain seventeen years and a half.^ 

As for Cain, when the mourning for his brother was ended, 
he took his isister Luluwa^ and married her, without leave from 
his father and mother ; for they could not keep him from her, 
by reason of their heavy heart. 

He then went down to the bottom of the mountain, away 
from the garden, near to the place where he had killed his 


And in that place were many [fruit] trees and forest trees. 
His sister bare him children, who [in their turn] began to 
multiply by degrees until they filled that place. 

But as for Adam and Eve, they came not together after 
Abel's funeral, for seven years. After this, however. Eve 
conceived ; and while she was with child, Adam said to her, 
" Come, let us take an offering and offer it up unto God, 
and ask Him to give us a fair child, in whom we may find 
comfort, and whom we may join in marriage to AbeFs sister. 

Then they prepared an offering and brought it up to the 
altar, and offered it before the Lord, and began to entreat 
Him to accept their offering, and to give them a good off- 

And God heard Adam and accepted his offering. Then, 
they worshipped, Adam, Eve, and their daughter, and came 
down to the Cave of Treasures and placed a lamp in it, to burn 
by night and by day, before the body of Abel. 

Then Adam and Even continued fasting and praying until 
Eve^s time came that she should be delivered, when she said 
to Adam, " I wish to go to the cave in the rock, to bring forth 
in it." 

And he said, " Go, and take with thee thy daughter to wait 
on thee ; but I will remain in this Cave of Treasures before the 
body of my son Abel." 

Then Eve hearkened to Adam, and went, she and her 
daughter. But Adam remained by himself in the Cave of 


And Eve brought forth a son perfectly beautiful in figure 
and in countenance. His beauty was like that of his father 
Adam, yet more beautiful.^ 

Then Eve was comforted when she saw him, and remained 


eight days in the cave ; then she sent her daughter unto Adam 
[to tell him] to come and see the child and name him. But 
the daughter stayed in his place by the body of her brother, 
until Adam returned. So did she. 

But when Adam came and saw the child^s good looks, his 
beauty, and his perfect figure, he rejoiced over him, and was 
comforted for Abel. Then he named the child Seth,* that 
/neans, " that God has heard my prayer, and has delivered me 
out of my affliction.^' But it means also "power and strength." 

Then after Adam had named the child, he returned to the 
Cav-e of Treasures ; and his daughter went back to her mother. 

But Eve continued in her cave, until forty days were fulfilled, 
when she came to Adam, and brought with her the child and 
her daughter. 

And they came to a river of water, where Adam and hia 
daughter washed themselves, because of their sorrow for Abel; 
but Eve and the babe washed for purification. 

Then they returned, and took an offering, and went to the 
mountain and offered it up, for the babe; and God accepted 
their offering, and sent His blessing upon them, and upon their 
son Seth ; and they came back to the Cave of Treasures. 

As for Adam, he knew not again his wife Eve, all the days 
of his life ; neither was any more offspring born of them ; but 
only those five, Cain, Luluwa, Abel, Aklia,* and Sethf alone. J 

But Seth waxed in stature and in strength ; and began to 
fast and pray, fervently. § 


Fifteenth apparition of Satan to Adam and Eve, above the roof 

of the cave. 

As for our father Adam, at the end of seven years from the 

day he had been severed from his wife Eve, Satan envied him, 

* Or, Aclemia. 

t This does not agree with other accounts. See Fabric. Cod. Apoe. Y. T., vol. i. 

X i.e., without a twin sister. § Lit. with hard labour. 


when lie saw him thus separated from her ; and strove to make 
him live with her again. ^ 

Then Adam arose andwent np above the Cave of Treasures; 
and continued to sleep there night by night. But as soon as it 
was light every day he came down to the cave, to pray there 
and to receive a blessing from it. 

But when it was evening he went up on the roof of the cave, 
where he slept by himself, fearing lest Satan should overcome 
him. And he continued thus apart thirty-nine days. 

Then Satan, the hater of all good, when he saw Adam thus 
alone, fasting and praying, appeared unto him in the form of 
a beautiful woman, who came and stood before him in the night 
of the fortieth day, and said unto him : — 

" Adam, from the time ye have dwelt in this cave, we 
have experienced great peace from you, and your prayers have 
reached us, and we have been comforted about you. 

" But now, Adam, that thou hast gone up over the roof of 
the cave to sleep, we have had doubts about thee, and a great 
sorrow has come upon us because of thy separation from Eve. 
Then again, when thou art on the roof of this cave, thy prayer 
is poured out, and thy heart wanders from side to side. 

" But when thou wast in the cave thy prayer was like fire 
gathered together; it came down to us, and thou didst find 

" Then I also grieved over thy children who are severed 
from thee ; and my sorrow is great about the murder of thy 
son Abel ; for he was righteous ; and over a righteous man 
every one will grieve. 

" But I rejoiced over the birth of thy son Seth ; yet after a 
little while I sorrowed greatly over Eve, because she is my 
sister. For when God sent a deep sleep over thee, and drew 
her out of thy side. He brought me out also with her. But He 
raised her by placing her with thee, while He lowered me. 

" I rejoiced over my sister for her being with thee. But God 
had made me a promise before, and said, ' Grieve not ; when 


Adam has gone up on the roof of the Cave of Treasures, and 
is separated from Eve his wife, I will send thee to him, thou 
shalt join thyself to him in marriage, and bear him five children, 
as Eve did bear him five/ 

" And now, lo ! God^s promise to me is fulfilled ; for it is 
He who has sent me to thee for the wedding ; because if thou 
■wed me, I shall bear thee finer and better children than those 
of Eve. 

" Then again, thou art as yet but a youth ; end not thy 
youth in this world in sorrow ; but spend the days of thy youth 
in mirth and pleasure. For thy days are few and thy trial 
is great. Be strong ; end thy days in this world in rejoicing. 
I shall take pleasure in thee, and thou shalt rejoice with me in 
this wise, and without fear. 

" Up, then, and fulfil the command of thy God," she then 
drew near to Adam, and embraced him. 

But when Adam saw that he should be overcome by her, he 
prayed to God with a fervent heart to deliver him from her. 

Then God sent His Word unto Adam, saying, " Adam, that 
figure is the one that promised thee the Godhead, and majesty; 
he is not favourably disposed towards thee ; but shows himself 
to thee at one time in the form of a woman ; another moment, 
in the likeness of an angel; on another occasion, in the 
similitude of a serpent ; and at another time, in the semblance 
of a god ; but he does all that only to destroy thy soul, 

" Now, therefore, Adam, understanding thy heart, I have 
delivered thee many a time from his hands ; in order to show 
thee that I am a merciful God ; and that I wish thy good, and 
that I do not wish thy ruin." . 


Then God ordered Satan to show himself to Adam plainly, 
in his own hideous form. 


But when Adam saw him, he feared, and trembled at the 
sight of him. 

And God said to Adam, " Look at this devil,* and at his 
hideous look, and know that he it is who made thee fall from 
brightness into darkness, from peace and rest to toil and 
misery. And look, O Adam, at him, who said of himself that 
he is God ! Can God be black ? Would God take the form 
of a woman ? Is there any one stronger than God ? And 
can He be overpowered ? 

" See, then, Adam, and behold him bound in thy presence, 
in the air, unable to flee away ! Therefore, I say unto thee, 
be not afraid of him ; henceforth take care, and beware of him, 
in whatever he may do to thee," 

Then God drove Satan away from before Adam, whom He 
strengthened, and whose heart He comforted, saying to him, 
" Go down to the Cave of Treasures, and separate not thyself 
from Eve ; I will quell in you all animal lust. From that hour 
it left Adam and Eve, and they enjoyed rest by the command- 
ment of God. But God did not the like to any one of Adam's 
seed ; but only to Adam and Eve. 

Then Adam worshipped before the Lord, for having 
delivered him, and for having layed his passions. And he 
came down from above the cave, and dwelt with Eve as 
aforetime. This ended the forty days of his separation 
from Eve. 


As for Seth, when he was seven years old, he knew good 
and evil, and was consistent in fasting and praying, and spent 
all his nights in entreating God for mercy and forgiveness. 

He also fasted when bringing up his offering every day, 
more than his father did; for he was of a fair countenance, 
like unto an angel of God. He also had a good heart, 

* Lit. Diabolos. 


preserved the finest qualities of his soul ; and for this reason 
he brought up his offering every day. 

And God was pleased with his offering; but He was also 
pleased with his purity.* And he continued thus in [doing] 
the will of God, and of his father and mother, until he was 
seven years old. 

After that, as he was coming down from the altar, having 
ended his offering, Satan appeared unto him in the form of a 
beautiful angel, brilliant with light; with a staff of light in 
his hand, himself girt about with a girdle of light. 

He greeted Seth with a beautiful smile, and began to 
beguile him with fair words, saying to him, " Seth, why 
abidest thou in this mountain ? For it is rough, full of stones 
and of sand, and of trees with no good fruit on them ; a 
wilderness without habitations and without towns ; no good 
place to dwell in. But all is heat, weariness, and trouble." 

He said further, "But we dwell in beautiful places, in 
another world than this earth. Our world is one of light and 
our condition isf of the best ; our women are handsomer than 
any others; and I wish thee, Seth, to wed one of them; 
because I see that thou art fair to look upon, and in this land 
there is not one woman good enough for thee. Besides, all 
those who live in this world, are only five souls. 

" But in our world there are very many men and many 
maidens, all more beautiful one than another. I wish, therefore, 
to remove thee hence, that thou may est see my relations and 
be wedded to which ever thou likest. 

" Thou shalt then abide by me and be at peace ; thou shalt 
be filled with splendour and light, as we are. 

" Thou shalt remain in our world, and rest from this world 
and the misery of it ; thou shalt never again feel faint and 
weary; thou shalt never bring up an offering, nor sue for 
mercy; for thou shalt commit no more sin, nor be swayed 
by passions. 

* Or, innocence. t ^^^- conditions are. 


" And if thou wilt hearken to what I say, thou shalt wed 
one of my daughters ; for with us it is no sin so to do ; neither 
is it reckoned animal lust. 

" For in our world we have no God ; but we all are gods ; 
we all are of the light, heavenly, powerful, strong and 


When Seth heard these words he was amazed, and inclined 
his heart to Satan's treacherous speech, and said to him, 
" Saidst thou there is another world created than this ; and 
other creatures more beautiful than the creatures that are in 
this world V 

And Satan said, " Yes j behold thou hast heard me ; but I 
will yet praise them and their ways, in thy hearing." 

But Seth said to him, " Thy speech has amazed me ; and 
thy beautiful description [of it all}. 

" Yet I cannot go with thee to-day ; not until I have goue 
to my father Adam and to my mother Eve, and told them all 
thou hast said to me. Then if they give me leave to go with 
thee, I will come." 

Again Seth said, " I am afraid of doing any thing without 
my father's and mother's leave, lest I perish like my brother 
Cain, and like my father Adam, who transgressed the com- 
mandment of God. But, behold, thou knowest this place ; 
come, and meet me here to-morrow." 

When Satan heard this, he said to Seth, '* If thou tellest 
thy father Adam what I have told thee, he will not let thee 
come with me. But hearken to me; do not tell thy father 
and mother what I have said to thee ; but come with me to- 
day, to our world ; where thou shalb see beautiful things and 
enjoy thyself there, and revel this day among my children, 
beholding them and taking thy fill of mirth ; and rejoice ever- 


more. Then I shall bring thee back to this place to-morrow ; 
but if thou wouldest rather abide with me, so be it." 

Then Seth answered, '' The spirit of my father and of my 
mother, hangs on me; and if I hide from them one day, 
they will die, and God will hold me guilty of sinning against 

" And except that they know I am come to this place to 
bring up to it [my] offering, they would not be separated from 
me one hour ; neither should I go to any other place, unless 
they let me. But they treat me most kindly, because I come 
back to them quickly." 

Then Satan said to him, " What will happen to thee if thou 
hide thyself from them one night, and return to them at break 
of day?" 

But Seth, when he saw how he kept on talking, and that he 
would not leave him — ran, and went up to the altar, and spread 
his hands unto God, and sought deliverance from Him. 

Then God sent His Word, and cursed Satan, who fled from 

But as for Seth, he had gone up to the altar, saying thus in 
his heart, " The altar is the place of offering, and God is there ; 
a divine fire shall consume it ; so shall Satan be unable to hurt 
me, and shall not take me away thence." 

Then Seth came down from the altar and went to his father 
and mother, whom he found in the way, longing to hear his 
voice ; for he had tarried a while. 

He then began to tell them what had befallen him from 
Satan, under the form of an angel. 

But when Adam heard his account, he kissed his face, and 
warned him against that angel, telling him it was Satan who 
thus appeared to him. Then Adam took Seth, and they went 
to the Cave of Treasures, and rejoiced therein. 

But from that day forth Adam and Eve never parted from 

* Lit. of their sin. 


him^ to whatever place he might go, whether for his ofEering 
or for any thing else. 

This sign happened to Seth, when he was nine years old. 


When our father Adam saw that Seth was of a perfect heart, 
he wished him to marry ; lest the enemy should appear to him 
another time, and overcome him. 

So Adam said to his son Seth, " I wish, my son, that thou 
wed thy sister Aklia, Abel's sister, that she may bear thee 
children, who shall replenish the earth, according to God's 
promise to us. 

*' Be not afraid, my son ; there is no disgrace in it. I wish 
thee to marry, from fear lest the enemy overcome thee.** 

Seth, however, did not wish to marry ; but in obedience to 
his father and mother, he said not a word. 

So Adam married him to Aklia.* And he was fifteen 
years old. 

But when he was twenty years of age,t he begat a son, 
whom he called Enos;J and then begat other children than 

Then Enos grew up, married, and begat Cainan. 

Cainan also grew up, married, and begat Mahalaleel. 

Those fathers were born during Adam*s life-time, and dwelt 
by the Cave of Treasures. 

Then were the days of Adam nine hundred and thirty years, 

and those of Mahalaleel one hundred. But Mahalaleel, when 

he was grown up, loved fasting, praying, and with hard labour,§ 

until the end of our father Adam*s days drew near. 

t * Called 'Qpaia by the Sethians. S. Epiph. Hceres. xxxix, c. 5. Adam gave 
to Seth, Owain, Abel's sister, in marriage. Eutych. Nazam al-jaw., p. 18, see note 
p. 106. 

t A hundred and five years old, Eutych. Kaaam al-jaw., p. 18. 

J Tt}v ISiav aSt\(p>)v'A(TaovafiKaXovfiii'Tiv ytjfias, iyivv/jai tuv'Evoic. Cedren. 
i, Hist. Comp., p. 17. 

§ i.e., coutinually and earnestly. 




When our father Adam saw that his end was near,' he called 
his son Seth, who came to him in the Cave of Treasures, and 
he said unto him : — 

*' Seth, my son, bring me thy children and thy children's 
children, that I may shed my blessing on them ere I die." 

When Seth heard these words from his father Adam, he 
went from him, shed a flood of tears over his face,* and 
gathered together his children and his children's children, and 
brought them to his father Adam. 

But when our father Adam saw them around him, he wept 
at having to be separated from them. 

And when they saw him weeping, they all wept together, and 
fell upon his face saying, " How shalt thou be severed from us, 
our father ? And how shall the earth receive thee and hide 
thee from our eyes V Thus did they lament much, and in 
like words. t 

Then our father Adam blessed them all, and said to Seth, 
after he had blessed them : — 

" Seth, my son, thou knowest this world — that it is full of 
sorrow, and of weariness ; and thou knowest all that has come 
upon us, from our trials in it. I therefore now command thee 
in these words : to keep innocency, to be pure and just, and 
trusting in God ; and lean not to the discourses of Satan, nor 
to the apparitions in which he will show himself to thee. But 
keep the commandments that I give thee this day ; then give 
the same to thy son Enos ; and let Enos give it to his son 
Cainan ; and Cainan to his son Mahalaleel ; so that this com- 
mandment abide firm among all your children.^ 

" Seth, my son, the moment I am dead take ye my body 
and wind it up with myrrh, aloes, and cassia, and leave me here 

* Lit. down his cheeki. f Or, straiuB. 


in this Cave of Treasures in whicli are all these tokens which 
God gave us from the garden. 

*' my son, hereafter shall a flood come^ and overwhelm all 
creatures, and leave out only eight souls. 

" But, my son, let those whom it will leave out from 
among your children at that time, take my body with them out 
of this cave ; and when they have taken it with them, let the 
oldest among them command his children to lay my body in a 
ship until the flood has been assuaged, and they come out of 
the ship. Then they shall take my body and lay it in the 
middle of the earth, shortly after they have been saved from 
the waters of the flood. 

" For the place where my body shall be laid, is the middle of 
the earth ; God shall come from thence and shall save all our 

" But now, Seth, my son, place thyself at the head of thy 
people ; tend them and watch over them in the fear of God ; 
and lead them in the good way. Command them to fast unto 
God J and make them understand they ought not to hearken 
to Satan, lest he destroy them. 

" Then, again, sever thy children and thy children's children 
from Cain's children ; do not let them ever mix with those, 
nor come near them either in their words or in their deeds." 

Then Adam let his blessing descend upon Seth, and upon 
his children, and upon all his children's children. 

He then turned to his son Seth, and to Eve his wife, and 
said to them, " Preserve this gold, this incense, and this myrrh, 
that God has given us for a sign ; for in days that are coming, 
a flood will overwhelm the whole creation. But those who 
shall go into the ark shall take with them the gold, the incense, 
and the myrrh, together with my body; and will lay the gold, 
the incense, and the myrrh, with my body in the midst of the 

" Then, after a long time, the city in which the gold, the 
incense, and the myrrh are found with my body, shall be plun- 

8 * 


dered. But when it is spoiled, the gold, the incense, and the 
myrrh shall be taken care of with the spoil that is kept ; and 
naught of them shall perish, until the Word of God, made 
man shall come ; when kings shall take them,* and shall offer 
to Him, gold in token of His being King ; incense, in token of 
His being God of heaven and earth ; and myrrh, in token of 
His passion. 

" Gold also, as a token of His overcoming Satan, and all our 
foes ; incense as a token that He will rise from the dead, and 
be exalted above things in heaven and things in the earth ; and 
myrrh, in token that He will drink bitter gall ; and [feel] the 
pains of hell from Satan. 

''And now, Seth, my son, behold I have revealed unto 
thee hidden mysteries, which God had revealed unto me. Keep 
my commandment, for thyself, and for thy people.'* 


When Adam had ended his commandment to Seth, his limbs 
were loosened, his hands and feet lost all power, his mouth 
became dumb, and his tongue ceased altogether to speak. He 
closed his eyes and gave up the ghost.^ 

But when his children saw that he was dead, they threw 
themselves over him, men and women, old and young, weeping. 

The death of Adam took place at the end of nine hundred 
and thirty years that he lived upon the earth ; on the fifteenth 
day of Barmudeh, after the reckoning of an epact of the sun, at 
the ninth hour. It was on a Friday,^° the very day on which he 
was created, and on which he rested ; and the hour at which he 
died, was the same as that at which he came out of the garden. 

Then Seth wound him up well, and embalmed him with 
plenty of sweet spices, from sacred trees and from the Holy 

* i.e., the gold, the incense, and the myrrh. 


Mountain ; and he laid his body on the eastern side of the 
inside of the cave, the side of the incense ; and placed in front 
of him a lamp-stand kept burning. 

Then his children stood before him weeping and wailing over 
him the whole night until break of day. 

Then Seth and his son Enos, and Cainan, the son of Enos, 
went out and took good offerings to present unto the Lord, and 
they came to the altar upon which Adam offered gifts to God, 
when he did offer. 

But Eve said to them, " Wait until we have first asked God 
to accept our offering, and to keep by Him the soul of Adam 
His servant, and to take it up to rest." 

And they all stood up and prayed.^^ 


And when they had ended their prayer, the Word of God 
came and comforted them concerning their father Adam. 

After this, they offered their gifts for themselves and for 
their father. 

And when they had ended their offering, the Word of God 
came to Seth, the eldest among them, saying unto him, " O 
Seth, Seth, Seth, three times. As I was with thy father, so 
also shall I be with thee, until the fulfilment of the promise I 
made him — thy father [saying] , I will send My Word and save 
thee and thy seed. 

" But as to thy father Adam, keep thou the commandment 
he gave thee; and sever thy seed from that of Cain thy 

And God withdrew His Word from Seth. 

Then Seth, Eve, and their children, came down from the 
mountain to the Cave of Treasures. 

Bat Adam was the first whose soul died in the land of 


Eden,* in the Cave of Treasures ; for no one died before him, 
but his son Abel, who died murdered. 

Then all the children of Adam rose up, and wept over their 
father Adam, and made offerings to him, one hundred and 
forty days. 


After the death of Adam and of Eve,^' Seth severed his 
children, and his children's children, from Cain's children. 
Cain and his seed went down and dwelt westward, below the 
place where he had killed his brother Abel.^* 

But Seth and his children, dwelt northwards upon the 
mountain of the Cave of Treasures, in order to be near to their 
father Adam. And Seth the elder, tall and good, with a fine 
soul, and of a strong mind, stood at the head of his people j 
and tended them in innocence, penitence, and meekness, and 
did not allow one of them to go down to Cain's children. But 
because of their own purity, they were named " Children of 
God," and they were with God, instead of the hosts of angels 
who fell ; for they continued in praises to God, and in singing 
psalms unto Him, in their cave — the Cave of Treasures. 

Then Seth stood before the body of his father Adam, and of 
his mother Eve, and prayed night and day, and asked for 
mercy towards himself and his children ; and that when he had 
some difficult dealing with a child. He would give him counsel. 

But Seth and his children did not like earthly work, but 
gave themselves to heavenly things ;^* for they had no other 
thought than praises, doxologies, and psalms unto God. There- 
fore did they at all times hear the voices of angels, praising 
and glorifying God; from within the garden, or when they 
were sent [by God] on an errand, or when they were going 
up to heaven. 

* In the land in which he was created (the land of Eden). Eafale, p. 19. 


For Seth and his children, by reason of their own purity, 
heard and saw those angels. Then, again, the garden was not 
far above them, but only some fifteen spiritual cubits. Now 
one spiritual cubit answers to three cubits of man ;* altogether 
forty-five cubits. 

Seth and his children dwelt on the mountain below the 
garden ; they sowed not, neither did they reap ; they wrought 
no food for the body, not even wheat; but only offerings. 
They ate of the fruit and of trees well flavoured [that grew] on 
the mountain where they dwelt. 

Then Seth often fasted every forty days, as did also his eldest 
children. For the family of Seth smelled the smell of the trees 
in the garden, when the wind blew [that way] . They were 
happy, innocent, without sudden fear, there was no jealousy, 
no evil action, no hatred among them. There was no animal 
passion ; from no mouth among them went forth either foul 
words or curse ; neither evil counsel nor fraud. For the men 
of that time never swore, but under hard circumstances, when 
men must swear, they swore by the blood of Abel the just.f 

But they constrained their children and their women every 
day in the cave to fast and pray, and to worship the most High 
God. They blessed themselves in the body of their father 
Adam, and anointed themselves with it. And they did so 
until the end of Seth drew near. 


Then Seth, the just, called his son Bnos, and Cainan, son of 
Enos, and Mahalaleel, son of Cainan, and said unto them :— 

" As ray end is near, I wish to build a roof over the altar on 
which gifts are offered.'* 

* Lit. of the arm. 

t They dwelt on Mount Hermon leading a life of purity, and abstaining from 
marriage; wherefore were they called Watchers and Sons of Ood. Bar. Ilebr. Pyn., 
p. 4. 


They hearkened to his commandment and went out, all of 
them, both old and young, and worked hard at it, and built a 
beautiful roof over the altar. 

And Seth's thought, in so doing, was that a blessing should 
come upon his children on the mountain ; and that he should 
present an offering for them before his death. 

Then when the building of the roof was completed, he com- 
manded them to make offerings. They worked diligently at 
these, and brought them to Seth their father, who took them 
and offered them upon the altar ; and prayed God to accept 
their offerings, to have mercy on the souls of his children, and 
to keep them from the hand of Satan. 

And God accepted his offering, and sent His blessing upon 
him and upon his children. And then God made a promise to 
Seth, saying, " At the end of the great five days and a half, 
concerning which I have made a promise to thee and to 
thy father, I will send My Word and save thee and thy 

Then Seth and his children, and his children's children, met 
together, and came down from the altar, and went to the 
Cave of Treasures — where they prayed, and blessed themselves 
in the body of our father Adam, and anointed themselves 
with it. 

But Seth abode in the Cave of Treasures, a few days, and 
then suffered-^sufferings unto death. 

Then Enos, his first-born son, came to him, with Cainan, 
his son, and Mahalaleel, Cainan's son, and Jared, the son of 
Mahalaleel, and Enoch, Jared's son, with their wives and 
children to receive a blessing from Seth. 

Then Seth prayed over them, and blessed them, and 
adjured them by the blood of Abel the just,^^ saying, " I beg 
of you, my children, not to let one of you go down from this 
Holy and pure Mountain. Make no fellowship with the 
children of Cain the murderer and the sinner, who killed his 
brother ; for ye know, my children, that we flee from him. 


and from all his sin with all our might because he killed his 
brother Abel/' 

After having said this, Seth blessed Enos, his first- bom son, 
and commanded him habitually to minister in purity before 
the body of our father Adam, all the days of his life ; then, 
also, to go at times to the altar which he [Seth] had built. 
And he commanded him to feed his people in righteousness, 
in judgment and purity all the days of his life. 

Then the limbs of Seth were loosened ; his hands and feet 
lost all power ; his mouth became dumb, and unable to speak ; 
and he gave up the ghost and died the day after his nine 
hundred and twelfth year ; on the twenty-seventh day of the 
month Abib ; Enoch being then twenty years old. 

Then they wound up carefully the body, of Seth, and 
embalmed him with sweet spices, and laid him in the Cave of 
Treasures, on the right side of our father Adam's body, and 
they mourned for him forty days. They offered gifts for him, 
as they had done for our father Adam. 

After the death of Seth, Enos rose at the head of his people, 
whom he fed in righteousness, and judgment, as his father had 
commanded him.^^ 

But by the time Enos was eight hundred and twenty years 
old, Cain had a large progeny ; for they married frequently, 
being given to animal lusts; until the land below the mountain, 
was filled with them. 


In those days lived Lamech the blind, who was of the sons 
of Cain. He had a son whose name was Atun,* and they two 
had much cattle. 

But Lamech was in the habit of sending them [to feed] with 
a young shepherd,t who tended them ; and who, when coming 
* In Arabic, it means hot, hard, hasty. t Lamech 's grandson. 


home in the evening wept before his grandfather, and before 
his father Atun and his mother Hazina, and said to them, "As 
for me, I cannot feed those cattle alone, lest one rob me of 
some of them, or kill me for the sake of them." For among 
the children of Cain, there was much robbery, murder, and 

Then Lamech pitied him, and he said, ''Truly, he [when 
alone], might be overpowered by the [men of this place.]'* 

So Lamech arose, took a bow he had kept ever since he was 
a youth, ere he became blind, and he took large arrows, and 
smooth stones, and a sling which he had, and went to the 
field with the young shepherd, and placed himself behind the 
cattle; while the young shepherd watched the cattle. Thus 
did Lamech many days. 

Meanwhile Cain, ever since God had cast him ofi", and had 
cursed him with trembling and terror, could neither settle nor 
find rest in any one place ; but wandered from place to place. 

[In his wanderings] he came to Lamech's wives, and asked 
them about him. They said to him, ''He is in the field with 
the cattle." 

Then Cain went to look for him ; and [as] he came into the 
field, the young shepherd heard the noise he made, and the 
cattle herding together from before him. 

Then said he to Lamech, " O my lord, is that a wild beast 
or a robber ? " 

And Lamech said to him, " Make me understand which way 
he looks, when he comes up." 

Then Lamech bent his bow, placed an arrow on it, and 
fitted a stone in the sling, and when Cain came out from the 
open country, the shepherd said to Lamech, " Shoot, behold, 
he is coming." 

Then Lamech shot at Cain with his arrow and hit him in his 
side. And Lamech struck him with a stone from his sling, 
that fell upon his face, and knocked out both his eyes ; then 
Cain fell at once and died.^'' 


Then Lamech and the young shepherd came up to him, and 
found him lying on the ground. And the young shepherd 
said to him, *' It is Cain our grandfather, whom thou hast 
killed, my lord ! " 

Then was Lamech sorry for it, and from the bitterness of 
his regret, he clapped his hands together, and struck with his 
flat palm the head of the youth, who fell as if dead; but 
Lamech thought it was a feint ; so he took up a stone and 
smote him, and smashed his head until he died.^^ 


When Enos was nine hundred years old, all the children of 
Seth, and of Cainan, and his first-born, with their wives and 
children, gathered around him, asking for a blessing from 

He then prayed over them and blessed them, and adjured 
them by the blood of Abel the just, saying to them, " Let not 
one of your children go down from this Holy Mountain, and 
let them make no fellowship with the children of Cain the 

Then Enos called his son Cainan and said to him, " See, O 
my son, and set thy heart on thy people, and establish them in 
righteousness, and in innocence ; and stand ministering before 
the body of our father Adam, all the days of thy life." 

After this Enos entered into rest, aged nine hundred and 
eighty-five years ; and Cainan wound him up, and laid him in 
the Cave of Treasures on the left of his father Adam; and 
made offerings for him, after the custom of his fathers. 


After the death of Enos, Cainan stood at the head of his 
people in righteousness and innocence, as his father had 


commatided him; he also continued to minister before the 
body of Adam, inside the Cave of Treasures.^' 

Then when he had hved nine hundred and ten years, 
suffering and affliction came upon him. And when he was 
about to enter into rest, all the fathers with their wives and 
children came to him, and he blessed them, and adjured them 
by the blood of Abel the just^^ saying to them, " Let not one 
among you go down from this Holy Mountain ; and make no 
fellowship with the children of Cain the murderer/' 

Mahalaleel, his first-born son, received this commandment 
from his father, who blessed him and died. 

Then Mahalaleel embalmed him with sweet spices, and laid 
him in the Cave of Treasures, with his fathers ; and they made 
oflferings for him, after the custom of their fathers.* 


Then Mahalaleel stood over his people, and fed them in 
righteousness and innocence, and watched them to see they 
held no intercourse with the childreji of Cain. 

He also continued in the Cave of Treasures praying and 
ministering before the body of our father Adam, asking God 
for mercy on himself and on his people ; until he was eight 
hundred and seventy years old, when he fell sick. 

Then all his children gathered unto him, to see him, and to 
ask for his blessing on them all, ere he left this world. 

Then Mahalaleel arose and sat on his bed, his tears streaming 
down his face, and he called his eldest son Jared, who came to 

He then kissed his face, and said to him, " Jared, my 
son, I adjure thee by Him who made heaven and earth, f to 

♦ See also Entych. Naaam al-j., p. 22. 

f Mahalaleel adjured his son Jared, by the blood of Abel, not to let one of his 
children go down from the mountain to the children of Cain the accursed. Eutych. 
Nazam al-j-, p. 22. 


watch over thy people, and to feed them in righteousness and 
in innocence ; and not to let one of them go down from this 
Holy Mountain to the children of Cain, lest he perish with them. 
" Hear, O my son, hereafter there shall come a great destruc- 
tion upon this earth on account of them ; God will be angry 
with the world, and will destroy them with waters. 

" But I also know that thy children will not hearken to 
thee, and that they will go down from this mountain and hold 
intercourse with the children of Cain, and that they shall 
perish with them. 

'* O my son ! teach them, and watch over them, that no guilt 
attach to thee on their account.^' 

Mahalaleel said, moreover, to his son Jared, " When I die, 
embalm my body and lay it in the Cave of Treasures, by the 
bodies of my fathers ; then stand thou by my body and pray to 
God ; and take care of them, and fulfil thy ministry before 
them, until thou enterest into rest thyself." 

Mahalaleel then blessed all his children ; and then lay down 
on his bed, and entered into rest like his fathers. 

But when Jared saw that his father Mahalaleel was dead, he 
wept, and sorrowed, and embraced and kissed his hands and his 
feet ; and so did all his children. 

And his children embalmed him carefully, and laid him by 
the bodies of his fathers. Then they arose, and mourned for 
him forty days. 


Then Jared kept his father's commandment, and arose like 
a lion over his people. He fed them in righteousness and 
innocence, and commanded them to do nothing without his 
counsel. For he was afraid concerning them, lest they should 
go to the children of Cain. 


Wherefore did he give them orders repeatedly ; and con- 
tinued to do so until the end of the four hundred and eighty- 
fifth year of his life. 

At the end of these said years, there came unto him this 
sign. As Jared was standing like a lion before the bodies of his 
fathers, praying and warning his people, Satan envied him, and 
wrought a beautiful apparition, because Jared would not let 
his children do aught without his counsel. 

Satan then appeared to him with thirty men of his hosts, in 
the form of handsome men ; Satan himself being the elder and 
tallest among them, with a fine beard. 

They stood at the mouth of the cave, and called out Jared, 
from within it. 

He came out to them, and found them looking like fine men, 
full of light, and of great beauty. He wondered at their 
beauty and [at their] looks ; and thought within himself 
whether they might not be of the children of Cain. 

He said also in his heart, " As the children of Cain cannot 
come up to the height of this mountain, and none of them is so 
handsome as these appear to be ; and among these men there 
is not one of my kindred — they must be strangers.^' 

Then Jared and they exchanged a greeting, and he said to 
the elder among them, " my father, explain to me the wonder 
that is in thee, and tell me who these are, with thee ; for they 
look to me like strange men." 

Then the elder began to weep, and the rest wept with him ; 
and he said to Jared, " I am Adam whom God made first ; and 
this is Abel my son, who was killed by his brother Cain, into 
whose heart Satan put to murder him. 

" Then this is my son Seth, whom I asked of the Lord, who 
gave him to me, to comfort me instead of Abel. 

" Then this one is my son Enos, son of Seth, and that other 
one is Cainan, son of Enos, and that other one is Mahalaleel, 
son of Cainan, thy father.^' 

But Jared remained wondering at their appearance, and at 
the speech of the elder to him. 


Then the elder said to him, "Marvel not, my son; we 
live in the land north of the garden, which God created before 
the world. He would not let us live there, but placed us inside 
the garden, below which ye are now dwelling. 

" But, after that I transgressed. He made me come out of it, 
and I was left to dwell in this cave ; great and sore troubles 
came upon me ; and when my death drew near, I commanded 
my son Seth to tend his people well ; and this my command- 
ment is to be handed from one to another, unto the end of the 
generations to come. 

" But, O Jared, my son, we live in beautiful regions, while 
you live here in misery, as this thy father Mahalaleel informed 
me ; telling me that a great flood will come and overwhelm the 
whole earth. 

" Therefore, O my son, fearing for your sakes, I rose and 
took my children with me, and came hither for us to visit thee 
and thy children; but I found thee standing in this cave 
weeping, and thy children scattered about this mountain, in 
the heat and in misery. 

" But, O my son, as we missed our way, and came as far as 
this, we found other men below this mountain ; who inhabit a 
beautiful country, full of trees and of fruits, and of all manner 
of verdure ; it is like a garden ; so that when we found them 
we thought they were you; until thy father Mahalaleel told me 
they were no such thing. 

" Now, therefore, O my son, hearken to my counsel, and go 
down to them, thou and thy children. Ye will rest from all 
this suffering in which ye are. But if thou wilt not go down to 
them, then, arise, take thy children, and come with us to our 
garden ; ye shall live in our beautiful land, and ye shall rest 
from all this trouble, which thou and thy children are now 

But Jared when he heard this discourse from the elder, 
wondered ; and went hither and thither, but at that moment 
he found not one of his children. 


Then he answered and said to the elder, " Why have you 
hidden yourselves until this day ? " 

And the elder replied, " If thy father had not told us, we 
should not have known it." 

Then Jared believed his words were true. 

So the elder said to Jared, " Wherefore didst thou turn 
about, so and so ? " And he said, " I was seeking one of my 
children, to tell him about my going with you, and about their 
coming down to those about whom thou hast spoken to me.'* 

When the elder heard Jared's intention, he said to him, 
" Let alone that purpose at present, and come with us ; thou 
shalt see our country ; if the land in which we dwell pleases 
thee, we and thou shall return hither and take thy family with 
us. But if our country does not please thee, thou shalt come 
back to thine own place. '■' 

And the elder urged Jared, to go before one of his children 
came to counsel him [otherwise] . 

Jared, then, came out of the cave and went with them, and 
among them. And they comforted him, until they came to the 
top of the mountain of the sons of Cain. 

Then said the elder to one of his companions, " We have 
forgotten something by the mouth of the cave, and that is, the 
chosen garment we had brought to clothe Jared withal/' 

He then said to one of them, " Go back, thou, some one ; 
and we will wait for thee here, until thou come back. Then 
will we clothe Jared, and he shall be like us, good, handsome, 
and fit to come with us into our country." 

Then that one went back. 

But when he was a short distance oflP, the elder called to him 
and said to him, " Tarry thou, until I come up and speak to 

Then he stood still, and the elder went up to him and said 
to him, " One thing we forgot at the cave, it is this — to put out 
the lamp that bums inside it, above the bodies that are therein. 
Then come back to us, quick." 


That one went, and the elder came back to his fellows and 
to Jared. And they came down from the mountain, and Jared 
with them ; and they stayed by a fountain of water, near the 
houses of the children of Cain, and waited for their companion 
until he brought the garment [for Jared] . 

He, then, who went back [to the cave], put out the lamp, 
and came to them and brought a phantom with him and showed 
it them. And when Jared saw it he wondered at the beauty 
and grace thereof, and rejoiced in his heart, believing it was 
all true. 

But while they were staying there, three of them went into 
houses of the sons of Cain, and said to them, " Bring us to-day 
some food by the fountain of water, for us and our companions 
to eat." 

But when the sons of Cain saw them, they wondered at them 
and thought :* " These are beautiful to look at, and such as we 
never saw before." So they rose and came with them to the 
fountain of water, to see their companions. 

They found them so very handsome, that they cried aloud 
about their places for others to gather together and come and 
look at these beautiful beings. Then they gathered around 
them both men and women. 

Then the elder said to them, " We are strangers in your 
land, bring us some good food and drink, you and your women, 
to refresh ourselves with you." 

When those men heard these words of the elder, every one 
of Cain's sons brought his wife, and another brought his 
daughter, and so, many women came to them; every one 
addressing Jared either for himself or for his wife ; all alike. 

But when Jared saw what they did, his very soul wrenched 
itself from them ; neither would he taste of their food or of 
their drink. 

The elder saw him as he wrenched himselff from them, and 

* Lit. said in their thoughts. 

t Or, his soul wrenched itself from them. 


said to him, " Be not sad ; I am the great elder, as thou shalt 
see me do, do thyself in like manner." 

Then he spread his hands and took one of the women, and 
five of his companions did the same before Jared, that he 
should do as they did. 

But when Jared saw them working infamy he wept, and said 
in his mind,* — My fathers never did the like. 

He then spread his hands and prayed with a fervent heart, 
and with much weeping, and entreated God to deliver him 
from their hands. 

No sooner did Jared begin to pray than the elder fled with 
his companions ; for they could not abide in a place of prayer. 

Then Jared turned round but could not see them, but found 
himself standing in the midst of the children of Cain. 

He then wept and said, " O God, destroy me not with this 
race, concerning which my fathers have warned me ; for now, 
O my Lord God, I was thinking that those who appeared unto 
me were my fathers ; but I have found them out to be devils, 
who allured me by this beautiful apparition, until I believed 

"But now I ask Thee, God, to deliver me from this race, 
among whom I am now staying, as Thou didst deliver me from 
those devils. Send Thy angel to draw me out of the midst of 
them ; for I have not myself power to escape from among 

When Jared had ended his prayer, God sent His angel in 
the midst of them, who [took Jared] and set him upon the 
mountain, and showed him the way, gave him counsel, and then 
departed from him. 


The children of Jared were in the habit of visiting him hour 
after hour, to receive his blessing and to ask his advice for 

* Lit. thought. 


every thing they did ; and when he had a work to do, they did 
it for him. 

But this time when they went into the cave they found not 
Jared, but they found the lamp put out, and the bodies of the 
fathers thrown about, and voices came from them by the power 
of God, that said, " Satan in an apparition has deceived our 
son, wishing to destroy him, as he destroyed our son Cain." 

They said also, " Lord God of heaven and earth, deliver our 
son from the hand of Satan, who wrought a great and false 
apparition before him." They also spake of other matters, by 
the power of God. 

But when the children of Jared heard these voices they 
feared, and stood weeping for their father ; for they knew not 
what had befallen him. 

And they wept for him that day until the setting of the 

Then came Jared with a woeful countenance, wretched in 
mind and body, and sorrowful at having been separated from 
the bodies of his fathers. 

But as he was drawing near to the cave, his children saw 
him, and hastened to the cave, and hung upon his neck, crying, 
and saying to him, " father, where hast thou been, and [why 
hast thou] left us, as thou wast not wont to do ?" And again, 
" father, when thou didst disappear, the lamp over the 
bodies of our fathers went out, the bodies were thrown about, 
and voices came from them." 

When Jared heard this he was sorry, and went into the 
cave J and there found the bodies thrown about, the lamp put 
out, and the fathers themselves praying for his deliverance 
from the hand of Satan. 

Then Jared fell upon the bodies and embraced them, and 
said, " O my fathers, through your intercession, let God 
deliver me from the hand of Satan ! And I beg you will 
ask God to keep me and to hide me from him unto the day of 
my death." ^ 



Then all the voices ceased save the voice of our father Adam, 
who spake to Jared by the power of God, just as one would 
speak to his fellow, saying, " Jared my son, offer gifts to 
God for having delivered thee from the hand of Satan ; and 
when thou bringest those offerings, so be it, that thou offerest 
them on the altar on which I did offer. Then also, beware of 
Satan ; for he deluded me many a time with his apparitions, 
wishing to destroy me, but God delivered me out of his hand. 

" Command thy people that they be on their guard against 
him ; and never cease to offer up gifts to God." 

Then the voice of Adam also became silent ; and Jared and 
his children wondered at this. Then they laid the bodies [as 
they were at first] j and Jared and his children stood praying 
the whole of that night, until break of day. 

Then Jared made an offering and offered it up on the altar, 
as Adam had commanded him. And as he went up to the 
altar, he prayed to God for mercy and for forgiveness of his sin, 
concerning the lamp going out. 

Then God appeared unto Jared on the altar and blessed him 
and his children, and accepted their offerings ; and commanded 
Jared to take of the sacred fire from the altar, and with it to 
light the lamp that shed light on the body of Adam. 


Then God revealed to him again the promise He had made to 
Adam ; He explained to him the 5500 years, and revealed 
unto him the mystery of His coming upon the earth. 

And God said to Jared, "As to that fire which thou hast 
taken from the altar to light the lamp withal, let it abide with 
you to give light to the bodies; and let it not come out of 
the cave, until the body of Adam comes out of it. 

But, Jared, take care of the fire, that it burn bright in 
the lamp ; neither go thou again out of the cave, until thou 


receivest [an order] through a vision, and not in an apparition, 
when seen by thee. 

" Then command again thy people not to hold intercourse 
with the children of Cain, and not to learn their ways ; for I am 
God who loves not hatred and works of iniquity/' 

God gave also many other commandments to Jared, and 
blessed him. And then withdrew His word from him. 

Then Jared drew near with his children, took some fire, 
and came down to the cave, and lighted the lamp before the 
body of Adam; and he gave his people commandments as 
God had told him to do. 

This sign happened to Jared at the end of his four hundred 
and fiftieth year ; as did also many other wonders, we do not 
record. But we record only this one for shortness sake, and 
in order not to lengthen our narrative. 

And Jared continued to teach his children eighty years ; but 
after that they began to transgress the commandments he had 
given them, and to do many things without his counsel. They 
began to go down from the Holy Mountain one after another, 
and to mix with the children of Cain, in foul fellowships. 

Now the reason for which the children of Jared went down 
the Holy Mountain, is this, that we will now reveal unto 


After Cain had gone down to the land of dark soil,* and his 
children had multiplied therein,t there was one of them, whose 
name was Genun,^^ son of Lamech the blind who slew Cain. 

But as to this Genun, Satan came into him in his childhood ; 
and he made sundry trumpets and horns, and string instru- 

♦ Lit. black mud. 

f Kaiv — x^^A'^^oc wv — wKii Si rfiv y^v, ^rif iarl rpifiovtra [nod] •xQaiiaX'fiv 
ovaav — he iuhabited a land that is trembling, being low. Cedren., Uist. Covip., 
p. 15. 


mentSj cymbals and psalteries, and lyres and harps, and flutes ; 
and he played on them at all times and at every hour.*" 

And when he played on them, Satan came into them, so 
that from among them were heard beautiful and sweet sounds, 
that ravished the heart. f 

Then he gathered companies upon companies to play on 
them ; and when they played, it pleased well the children of 
Cain,J who inflamed themselves with sin among themselves, 
and burnt as with fire ; while Satan inflamed their hearts one 
with another, and increased lust among them. 

Satan also taught Grenun to bring strong drink out of com ;§ 
and this Genun used to bring together companies upon com- 
panies in drink-houses; and brought into their hands all 
manner of fruits and flowers ; and they drank together. 

Thus did this Genun multiply sin exceedingly; he also 
acted with pride, and taught the children of Cain to commit all 
manner of the grossest wickedness, which they knew not; and 
put them up to manifold doings which they knew not before. 

Then Satan, when he saw that they yielded to Genun and 
hearkened to him in every thing he told them, rejoiced greatly 
increased Genun's understanding, until he took iron and with it 
made weapons of war. 

Then when they were drunk, hatred and murder increased 
among them j one man used violence against another to teach 
him [evil], taking his children and defiling them before him. 

And when men saw they were overcome, and [saw] others 
that were not overpowered, those who were beaten came to 
Genun, took refuge with him, and he made them his con- 

Then sin increased among them greatly ; until a man married 
his own sister, or daughter, or mother, and others ; or the 
daughter of his father's sister, so that there was no more 

* Eutych., Nazam alj., p. 20. f iJit- hearts, 

X Lit. it seemed well in the eyes ol § Arab. " that is now called beer." 


distinction [of relationship],* and they no longer knew what 
is iniquity ; but did wickedly, and the earth was defiled with 
sin ; and they angered God the Judge, who had created them. 

But Genun gathered together companies upon companies, 
that played on horns and on all the other instruments we have 
already mentioned, at the foot of the Holy Mountain ; and they 
did so in order that the children of Seth who were on the Holy 
Mountain should hear it. 

But when the children of Seth heard the noise, they 
wondered, and came by companies, and stood on the top of 
the mountain to look at those below; and they did thus a 
whole year. 

When, at the end of that year, Genun saw that they were 
being won over to him little by little, Satan entered into him, 
and taught him to make dyeing-stuffs for garments of divers 
patterns, and made him understand how to dye crimson and 
purple, and what not. 

And the sons of Cain who wrought all this, and shone in 
beauty and gorgeous apparel, gathered together at the foot of 
the mountain in splendour, with horns and gorgeous dresses, 
and horse races ; committing all manner of abominations. 

Meanwhile the children of Seth, who were on the Holy 
Mountain, prayed and praised God, in the place of the hosts 
[of angels] who had fallen; wherefore God had called them 
** angels," because He rejoiced over them greatly. 

But after this, they no longer kept His commandment, nor 
held by the promise He had made to their fathers ; but they 
relaxed from their fasting and praying, and from the counsel 
of Jared their father. And they kept on gathering together 
on the top of the mountain, to look upon the children of Cain, 
from morning until evening, and upon what they did, upon 
their beautiful dresses and ornaments. 

Then the children of Cain looked up from below, and saw 

* Until they knew not either parents or children. Entych., Nazam alrj., p. 26. 


the children of Seth, standing in troops on the top of the 
mountain ; and they called to them to come down to them. 

But the children of Seth said to them from above, "We 
don't know the way." Then Genun, the son of Lamech, heard 
them say they did not know the way, and he bethought himself 
how he might bring them down. 

Then Satan appeared to him by night, saying, " There is no 
way for them to come down from the mountain on which they 
dwell; but when they come to-morrow, say to them, * Come ye 
to the western side of the mountain ; there you will find the way 
of a stream of water, that comes down to the foot of the 
mountain, between two hills ; come down that way to us." 

Then when it was day, Genun blew the horns and beat the 
drums below the mountain, as he was wont. The children of 
Seth heard it, and came as they used to do. 

Then Genun said to them from down below, " Go to the 
western side of the mountain, there you will find the way to 
come down.'' 

But when the children of Seth heard these words from him, 
they went back into the cave to Jared, to tell him all they 
had heard. 

Then when Jared heard it, he was grieved; for he knew 
that they would transgress Pais counsel] . 

After this a hundred men of the children of Seth gathered 
together,'^^ and said among themselves, " Come, let us go down 
to the children of Cain, and see what they do, and enjoy 
ourselves with them." 

But when Jared heard this of the hundred men, his very soul 
was moved, and his heart was grieved. He then arose with 
great fervour, and stood in the midst of them, and adjured them 
by the blood of Abel the just, " Let not one of you go down 
from this holy and pure mountain, in which our fathers have 
ordered us to dwell." 

But when Jared saw that they did not receive his words, he 
said unto them, " O my good and innocent and holy children. 


know that when once you go down from this holy mountain, 
God will not allow you to return again to it/' 

He again adjured them, saying, ^'I adjure by the death of 
our father Adam, and by the blood of Abel, of Seth, of Enos, 
of Cainan, and of Mahalaleel, to hearken to me, and not to go 
down from this holy mountain ; for the moment you leave it, 
you will be reft of life and of mercy ;* and you shall no longer 
be called * children of God,' but ' children of the devil/ "f 

But they would not hearken to his words. 

Enoch at that time was already grown up, and in his zeal for 
God, he arose and said, " Hear me, ye sons of Seth, small 
and great — when ye transgress the commandment of our fathers, 
and go down from this holy mountain — ye shall not come up 
hither again for ever.''^* 

• But they rose up against Enoch, and would not hearken to 
his words, but went down from the Holy Mountain. 

And when they looked at the daughters of Cain, at their 
beautiful figure, and at their hands and feet dyed with colour, 
and tattooed in ornaments on their faces, J the fire of sin was 
kindled in them.§ 

Then Satan made them look most beautiful before the sons 
of Seth, as he also made the sons of Seth appear of the fairest 
in the eyes of the daughters of Cain, so that the daughters of 
Cain lusted after the sons of Seth like ravenous beasts, and the 
sons of Seth after the daughters of Cain, until they committed 
abomination with them.]] 

But after they had thus fallen into this defilement, they 
returned by the way they had come, and tried to ascend the 

* Those rebellious souls are for death, the sword, perdition, and extinction like 
a lamp. Cod. Nasar, ii, 148. 

f S. Ephrem, Serm. 1, on Par., vol. iii, p. 664. 

X A description of Egyptian women, of that, as well as of the present, day. 

§ But the Author of evil unable to curse the holy life and happiness of the 
children of Seth dc rfiv wpaioTijra twv Ovyarepuv tuv dv6pu)Triitv, rJTOi tvv Kd'iv 
avToi'i irpuxTiv. Cedren., Hijst. Comp., p. 17. 

II Eutycbus tells the same in words that had better remain in the original. 


Holy Mountain. But they could not, because the stones of that 
holy mountain were of fire flashing before them, by reason of 
which they could not go up again.^^ 

And God was angry with them, and repented of them, 
because they had come down from glory, and had thereby [lost 
or] forsaken their own purity [or innocence], and were fallen^ 
into the defilement of sin.^^ 

Then God sent His Word to Jared, saying, "These thy 
children, whom thou didst call ' My children,' — behold they have 
transgressed My commandment, and have gone down to the 
abode of perdition, and of sin. Send a messenger to those that 
are left, that they may not go down, and be lost." 

Then Jared wept before the Lord, and asked of Him mercy 
and forgiveness. But he wished that his soul might depart 
from his body, rather than hear these words from God about 
the going down of his children from the Holy Mountain. 

But he followed God's order, and preached unto them not to 
go down from that holy mountain, and not to hold intercourse 
with the children of Cain. 

But they heeded not his message, and would not obey his 


After this another company gathered together, and they 
went to look after their brethren ; but they perished as well as 
they. And so it was, company after company, until only a few 
of them were left. 

Then Jared sickened from grief,* and his sickness was such 
that the day of his death drew near. 

Then he called Enoch his eldest son, and Methuselah Enoch's 
son, and Lamech the son of Methuselah, and Noah the son of 

* Nvv li iv xpovotc rov 'IdpiS Kai iirsKtiva ^apfiaKiia cat /itayiia, iaiXyita^ 
/iotxtia Kai aSiKia. S. Epiph., Ilwres., Lib. I, i, 5. 


And when they were come to him he prayed over them and 
blessed them, and said to them, " Ye are righteous, innocent 
sons ; go ye not down from this holy mountain ; for behold, 
your children and your children's children have gone down 
from this holy mountain, and have estranged themselves from 
this holy mountain, through their abominable lust and trans- 
gression of God's commandment. 

" But I know, through the power of God, that He will not 
leave you on this holy mountain,^^ because your children have 
transgressed His commandment and that of our fathers, which 
we had received from them. 

''But, my sons, God will take you to a strange land, and 
ye never shall again return to behold with your eyes this 
garden and this holy mountain. 

"Therefore, my sons, set your hearts on your own selves,* 
and keep the commandment of God which is with you. And 
when you go from this holy mountain, into a strange land 
which ye know not, take with you the body of our father Adam, 
and with it these three precious gifts and offerings, namely, 
the gold, the incense, and the myrrh ; and let them be in the 
place where the body of our father Adam shall lay. 

'' And unto him of you who shall be left, my sons, shall 
the Word of God come,^^ and when he goes out of this land 
he shall take with him the body of our father Adam, and shalj 
lay it in the middle of the earth, the place in which salvation 
shall be wrought.''t 

Then Noah said unto him, " Who is he of us that shall be 
left ?" 

And Jared answered, " Thou art he that shall be left.'° And 
thou shalt take the body of our father Adam from the cave, and 
place it with thee in the ark when the flood comes. 

" And thy son Shem, who shall come out of thy loins, he it 

* Or, on your souls. 

t See Ps. Ixxiv. 12, and S. Athan. Qucest. ad A., Vol. II, p. 393. 


is who shall lay the body of our father Adam in the middle of 
the earth, in the place whence salvation shall come/' 

Then Jared turned to his son Enoch, and said unto him, 
'*Thou, my son, abide in this cave, and minister diligently* 
before the body of our father Adam all the days of thy life ; 
and feed thy people in righteousness and innocence." 

And Jared said no more. His hands were loosened, his 
eyes closed, and he entered into rest like his fathers. His 
death took place in the three hundred and sixtieth year of Noah, 
and in the nine hundred and eighty -ninth year of his own life ; 
on the twelfth of Takhsasf on a Friday. 

But as Jared died, tears streamed down his face by reason 
of his great sorrow, for the children of Seth, who had fallen in 
his days. 

Then Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech and Noah, these four, wept 
over him ; embalmed him carefully, and then laid him in the 
Cave of Treasures. Then they rose and mourned for him forty 

And when these days of mourning were ended, Enoch, 
Methuselah, Lamech and Noah remained in sorrow of heart, 
because their father had departed from them, and they saw him 
no more. 


But Enoch kept the commandment of Jared his father, and 
continued to minister in the cave. 

It is this Enoch to whom many wonders happened, and who 
also wrote a celebrated book;J'^ but those wonders may not be 
told in this place. 

Then after this, the children of Seth went astray and fell, 
they, their children and their wives. And when Enoch, 

* Or, continually. 

f That is — the Ethiopic December ; whereas the Arabic original has Tishrin 
(October), the month in which he was born and also died. 
J Lit. by whom also there is a celebrated book. 


Methuselah, Lamech and Noah saw them, their hearts suffered 
by reason of their fall into doubt full of unbelief; and they 
wept and sought of God mercy, to preserve them, and to bring 
them out of that wicked generation. 

Enoch continued in his ministry before the Lord three 
hundred and eighty-five years, and at the end of that time he 
became aware through the grace of God, that God intended to 
remove him from the earth. 

He then said to his son, "0 my son, I know that God 
intends to bring the Waters of the Flood upon the earth, and to 
destroy our creation.^^ 

" And ye are the last rulers over this people on this mountain ; 
for I know that not one will be left you to beget children on 
this holy mountain ; neither shall any one of you rule over the 
children of his people; neither shall any great company be 
left of you, on this mountain.'' 

Enoch said also to them, " Watch over your souls, and hold 
fast by your fear of God and by your service of Him, and 
worship Him in upright faith, and serve Him in righteousness, 
innocence and judgment, in repentance and also in purity."^^ 

When Enoch had ended his commandments to them, God 
transported him from that mountain to the land of life, to the 
mansions of the righteous and of the chosen,^* the abode of 
Paradise of joy, in light that reaches up to heaven ; light that 
is outside the light of this world ; for it is the light of God, 
that fills the whole world, but which no place can contain. 

Thus, because Enoch* was in the light of God, he found 
himself out of the reach of death ; until God would have him die. 

Altogether, not one of our fathers or^ of their children, 
remained on that holy mountain, except those three, Methu- 
selah, Lamech, and Noah. For all the rest went down from 
the mountain and fell into sin with the children of Cain. 
Therefore were they forbidden that mountain, and none 
remained on it but those three men. 

* See S. Ephrem, vol. ii, p. 325, for a Beroion on Enoch. 




Noah noticed from his youth up, how sin had multiplied, 
how wickedness prevailed ; how generations of men perished, 
how sorrow increased, how righteous men diminished.^ 

Therefore did he afflict his soul ; he restrained his members, 
and retained his virginity ; and grieved over the ruin wrought 
by the generations of men. 

And this Noah habitually mourned and wept and was of a 
sad countenance ; and thus he held his soul in fasting, so that 
the enemy had no advantage over him, and did not come near 

This Noah also, ever since he was a child with his parents,* 
never made them angry, never transgressed against them ; nor 
ever did a thing without their advice. And when he was away 
from them, if he wished to pray or to do aught else ; he would 
ask of God, to guide him aright therein; wherefore God 
watched over him. 

And while he was on the mountain, he did not transgress 
against God in any one evil thing, nor did he wilfully depart 
from what pleased God ; neither did he ever anger God. 

Many were the wonderful things which happened to him, 
more than to any of his fathers before him, about the time of 
the Flood. 

* Lit. father. 


And Noah continued in his virginity and in his obedience to 
God five hundred years ; but after that it pleased God to raise 
him a seed ; He therefore spake unto him, saying, " Arise, O 
Noah, and take unto thyself a wife, that of her thou mayest 
have children that may be a comfort to thee ; for thou art left 
alone, and thou shalt go out of this country unto a strange 
land ; for the earth shall be peopled with thy posterity." 

Then when Noah heard this from God, he did not transgress 
His commandment, but took unto himself a wife, whose name 
was Haikal, the daughter of Abaraz, who was of the children 
of Enos's children, that went into perdition. 

And she bare unto him three sons. Sham, Ham, and Japhet. 


After these things, God spake unto Noah about the Flood j 
that it should come upon the earth, and destroy all creatures, so 
as not to let one of them be seen. 

And God said unto Noah, " Guard thy children ; command 
them and make them understand not to have intercourse with 
the children of Cain, lest they perish with them." 

And Noah hearkened to God's words, and kept his children 
on the mountain, and would not let them go down to the 
children of Cain. 

Then God spake again unto Noah, saying, "Make unto 
thyself an ark of wood that will not rot ; to be a deliverance to 
thee and to the men of thy house.^ 

" But begin to build it in the low land of Eden, in presence 
of the children of Cain, that they may see thee working at it ; 
and if they will not repent they shall perish ; and the blame 
shall rest on them. 

" But cut on this holy mountain, the trees whereof thou shalt 
make the ark; let the length of the ark be three hundred 


cubits, the breadth thereof fifty cubits, and the height thereof 
thirty cubits.^ 

" And when thou hast made and finished it, let there be in it 
ons door above, and three compartments ;* and every compart- 
ment ten cubits high. 

" The first story shall be for lions, and beasts, animals and 
ostriches all together. The second story shall be for birds, 
and creeping things. 

'' And the third story shall be for thee and thy wife, and for 
thy sons and their wives. 

" And make in the ark wells for water, and openings to 
them, to draw water thereat, for drink to thee and to those 
that are with thee. And thou shalt line those wells with lead, 
both in and out. 

" And make in the ark store-houses for corn ; for food to 
thee and to those that are with thee. 

" Then make also unto thyself a trumpet* of ebony wood, 
three cubits long, one and a half cubit wide, with a mouth- 
piece of the same wood. 

" And thou shalt blow it three times ; the first time in the 
morning, that the workmen [working] at the ark may hear it, 
and gather to their work. Then thou shalt blow it the second 
time, and when the workmen hear it, they will gather to their 
meal. And thou shall blow it a third time in the evening, for 
the workmen to go and rest from their labour.'* 

And God said unto Noah, " Go about among the people and 
tell them that a flood shall come and shall overwhelm them ; 
and make the ark before their eyes. 

" And when they question thee about the making of the ark, 
tell them : God has commanded me to make it, that we may 
get into it, I and my children, and be saved from the waters 
of the Flood." 

But when Noah went about among them and told them, they 

* Or, stories. 


laughed at him, and only committed adultery and revelled 
together all the more, and said, ''That twaddling old man ! 
Whence will ever the waters come, above the tops of high 
mountains ? We never saw water rise above mountains ; and 
this old man says, a flood is coming ! " 

But Noah did all his works, as God had told him concerning 


And Noah begat his three sons, during the first hundred 
years he worked at the ark. 

During these hundred years he ate no food, whence blood 
flows ; the shoes on his feet were neither changed, nor worn, 
nor grown old. 

During these hundred years also, he did not change his 
garments from off him, neither did they wear out, in the least ; 
he did not change the staff in his hand, nor did the cloth about 
his head grow old ; and the hair of his head neither increased 
nor grew less. 

As to those three sons of Noah, the first of them is Shem ; 
the next is Ham; and the third is Japhet. They married 
wives from among the daughters of Methuselah ; as the wise 
LXXII interpreters have told us; as it is written in the 
first [sacred] book of the Greeks. 

The life also of Lamech, Noah's father, was five hundred and 
fifty-three years ; and when he drew nigh unto death, he called 
unto him his father Methuselah and his son Noah, and he wept 
before his father Methuselah and said unto him, " Dismiss me, 
O my father, and bless me." 

Then Methuselah blessed his son Lamech, and said, "Not 
one of all our fathers died before his father, but the father 
[died] before his son, in order that there should be his son to 
bury him in the earth. Now, however, my son, thou diest 



before me, and I shall drink [the cup of] sorrow on thy account, 
ere I go out of the flesh. 

" Henceforth, my son, behold the world is changed, and 
the [order] of deaths of men is changed : for from to-day the 
son shall die before his father ; and the father shall not rejoice 
in his son, nor be satisfied with him. So also shall the son not 
be satisfied with his father, nor rejoice in him." 

Then Lamech died, and they embalmed him, and laid him in 
the Cave of Treasures. His death took place seven years before 
the Flood came j and his father Methuselah and his son Noah 
remained alone on the Holy Mountain. 

But Noah went down every day to work at the ark, and 
came up at eventide. And he instructed his sons and their 
wives not to come down after him, and not to hold intercourse 
with the children of Cain. 

For Noah was anxious about his sons, and said in his mind, 
" They are young and might be overcome by passion." So he 
went down by night; and gave old Methuselah directions 
about them. 


But Noah preached repeatedly to the children of Cain, 
saying, " The flood will come and destroy you, if we do not 
repent.^' But they would not hearken to him; they only 
laughed at him.^ 

When the children of Seth went down from the Holy Moun- 
tain, and dwelt with the children of Cain, and defiled themselves 
with their abominations, there were born unto them children 
called Garsina,* who were giants, mighty men of valour, such as 
no other giants were of equal might.^ 

Certain wise men of old wrote concerning them, and say in 
their [sacred] books, that angels came down from heaven, and 
* A corruption of the Ai-abic term. 


mingled with the daughters of Cain, who bare unto them these 

But those [wise men] err in what they say. God forbid 
such a thing, that angels who are spirits,* should be found 
committing sin with human beings. Never ; that cannot be.'^ 

And if such a thing were of the nature of angels, or Satans, 
that fell, they would not leave one woman on earth, undefiled. 
For Satans are very wicked and infamous. Moreover, they are 
not male and female by nature; but they are small, subtle 
spirits, that have been black ever since they transgressed. 

But many men say, that angels came down from heaven, and 
joined themselves to women, and had children by them. This 
cannot be true.f Bat they were children of Seth, who were of 
the children of Adam, that dwelt on the mountain, high up [or 
suspended], while they preserved their virginity, their inno- 
cence and their glory like angels ; and were then called " angels 
of God.'* 

But when they transgressed and mingled with the children 
of Cain, and begat children, ill-informed men said, that angels 
had come down from heaven, and mingled with daughters of 
men, who bare them giants. 


Then the ancient old man Methuselah who remained on the 
mountain with Noah's sons, lived nine hundred and eighty- 
seven years and then sickened; and his sickness was such that, 
on account of it, he must depart [from this world] . 

When Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham and Japhet, became 
aware of it, they came to him with their wives, and wept before 

♦ The Ethiopic construction is not quite correct here. The Arabic reads 
" Angelic spirits." 

t See S. Matt, xxii, 30, and the same in S. Mark and in S. Luke. See also 
note .5 from the Coran. Sur. vi, xxxvii, and liii, etc. 



him, and said, " our father, and [our] elder, bless us, and 
pray God to have mercy on us when thou art gone from us/' 

Then Methuselah said to them with a sorrowful heart, "Hear 
me, my dear children ; for none of our fathers are left, but 
you, eight souls. 

" The Lord God created our father Adam and our mother 
Eve, and from them filled the earth [with] people in the neigh- 
bourhood of the garden, and multiplied their seed. 

" But they have not kept His commandment, and He will 
destroy them. But had they kept His commandment. He 
would then have filled heaven and earth with them. 

" Yet will I ask the Lord my God to bless you, to multiply 
you, and to spread your race in a strange land, to which ye 
shall go. 

"And now, my children, behold, God will bring you inside 
an ark unto a land to which ye have never been. And the 
Lord God of all our pure fathers, be with you ! 

" And the glorious gifts God bestowed on our father Adam 
from the garden in this blessed Cave of Treasures, may He 
bestow them on you also ! 

"These are the three glorious gifts which God made to 
Adam. The first is — kingdom wherein God made Adam king 
over His works. The second glorious gift is — priesthood, in 
that God breathed into his face a spirit of life. And the third 
glorious gift is — prophecy, for Adam prophesied concerning 
what God thought [of doing]. 

" But I will ask the Lord my God, to bestow those three 
glorious gifts on your posterity." 

Then Methuselah said also to Noah, " Noah, thou art 
blessed of God. I warn thee and tell thee that I am going 
from thee to [be with] all our fathers that have gone before 

" But thou, who shalt be left alone with thy children on this 
holy mountain, keep the commandment I give thee, and forsake 
not anything of what I have told thee. 


" Behold my God shall quickly bring a flood upon the earth ; 
embalm my body, and lay it in the Cave of Treasures. 

'* Then take thy wife with thy sons and their wives, and go 
down from this holy mountain, and take with thee the body of 
our father Adam j^ go into the ark and lay it there, until the 
waters of the Flood are assuaged from off the face of the earth. 
" my son, when about to die, command thy first-born 
son Shem, to take Melchizedec,* son of Cainan, and grandson 
of Arphaxad ;^ for that Melchizedec is priest of the Most High 
God ;^'^ and to take with them the body of our father Adam 
from within the ark, and remove it and lay it in the earth. 

*' And Melchizedec shall stand ministering on that mountain 
that is in the middle of the earth, before the body of our father 
Adam for ever. For from that place, Noah my son, God 
shall work salvation for Adam and for all of his seed that 
believe in God." 

Methuselah said also to Noah and to his sons, " The angel 
of God will go with you, until you come to that place in the 
middle of the earth." 

Again Methuselah said to Noah, " my son, let him who 
ministers unto God and before the body of our father Adam, 
have a clothing of skin, and be girt about his loins with leather. 
Let him wear no ornament, but let his raiment be poor ; let 
him be alone,t and stand praying our Lord God to watch over 
the body of our father Adam ; for it is a body of great value 
before God. 

" And let him continue in his ministry, he the priest of the 
Most High God ; for he is well pleasing unto God, and so is 
the ministry he fulfils before God." 

After this Methuselah commanded Noah [saying], "Mind, 
then, all these commandments, and keep them." 

Then Methuselah's hands were loosened ; he ceased speak- 

* The Arabic reads: "Melchizedec thy son's son," i.e., "Son of Shem," as 
generally believed in the East, 
j- i.e., single. 


ing ; he gradually closed his eyes, and entered into rest like 
all his fathers ; his tears the time streaming down his cheeks, 
and his heart grieving at being separated from them [all] ; bat 
mostly because of that mountain of the garden, on which not 
one of them was left ; for God was purposed to destroy all 
creatures, and to blot them out from the face of the earth. 

The rest of Methuselah took place when he was nine hundred 
and sixty-seven years old, on the twelfth of Magabit on a Sunday. 

Then Noah and his sons embalmed him, weeping and 
sorrowing over him, and laid him in the Cave of Treasures. 
And they wailed over him with a great wailing, they and their 
wives, forty days. And when mourning and grief over Methu- 
selah were ended, Noah and his sons began to do as Methuselah 
had commanded them. 


After his death, Noah, his sons, and their wives came to the 
bodies of our fathers, worshipped them, and blessed themselves 
in them, weeping and being in the deepest grief. 

But Noah had finished the ark, and not one workman was 
left in it. And he, with his sons, continued in prayer to God, 
asking Him to show them the way of safety. 

When Noah and his sons had ended their prayers, God said 
unto him, " Go thou into the Cave of Treasures, thou and thy 
sons, and take the body of our father Adam and lay it in the 
ark J likewise take the gold, the incense, and the myrrh, and 
lay them in the ark together with his body." 

And Noah hearkened to God's voice, and went into the Cave 
of Treasures, he and his sons ; they worshipped the bodies of 
our fathers, and then Noah took the body of our father Adam, 
and carried it in the strength of God, not requiring the help of 
any one *^^ 

'*' Lit. and would (or wished) not that one should help him. 


Then Shem his son, took the gold with him, and Ham 
carried the myrrh, and Japhet carried the incense ; and they 
brought them out of the Cave of Treasures, their tears the 
while streaming down their cheeks. 

But as they were bringing them out, the bodies among which 
Adam had been laid, cried out, " Are we then to be separated 
from thee, our father Adam t" 

Then Adam's body answered, " Oh, that I must part from you 
my sons, from this holy mountain ! Yet do I know, my sons, 
that God will gather all our bodies together another time. 

" But wait patiently until our Saviour have pity on us." 

And the other bodies went on talking together, by the power 
of God's Word. 

Then Adam asked God that the divine fire might remain in 
the lamp, before his sons, until the time when bodies shall rise 

And God left the divine fire by them, to shed light on them. 
He then closed the cave upon them, and left not a trace to show 
[where it is] until the day of the Resurrection, when He will 
raise them up, like all other bodies. 

But the discourse Adam held, and that too, he being dead, 
was by the command of God, who would show His wonders 
among the dead and the living. 

After this let none of you say, that Adam's soul had already 
been under Satan's judgment. It was not so ; but God com- 
manded the souls of the dead, to come from under His hand ; 
and to speak of the wonders of God from within their bodies." 
Then they returned to their places until the day of the sure 
deliverance that shall be unto them all. 


But when Noah and his sons heard these voices from those 
dead bodies, they wondered greatly, and their faith in God was 


Then they went out of the cave and began to go down from 
the Holy Mountain, weeping and wailing with a fervent heart, 
for their being thus parted from the holy mountain, the abode 
of their fathers. 

And Noah and his sons went back and sought the cave, but 
could not find it. Then they broke out into bitter lamentation 
and deep sorrow ; for they saw that from that day forth, they 
should have neither existence nor abode in it. 

Then once more they raised their eyes and looked at the 
garden and at the trees [that were] in it, and they lifted up 
their voices in weeping and in loud crying, and said, *'We 
salute thee in worship, garden of joy !^^ abode of brilliant 
beings, a place for the righteous ! We salute thee, place 
of joy that was the abode of our father Adam, the chief of 
creation ; who, when he had transgressed, fell from thee ; and 
then saw his body in life, naked and disgraced. 

" And we, behold, we depart from the Holy Mountain to the 
lower side of thee ; neither shall we dwell in it, nor yet behold 
thee so long as we live. We wish God would remove theg with 
us to the country to which we shall go ; but God would not 
remove thee into a cursed land. 

*' But God will take us, and will bring us into that land with 
our children, until He has ended the punishment for our trans- 
gression of His commandment." 

Noah and his sons said also, " We salute thee, cave, abode 
of the bodies of our holy fathers ; we salute thee, pure spot, 
hidden from our eyes, yet fit to have those bodies laid within 
thee ! The Lord God preserve thee, for the sake of the bodies 
of our fathers ! 

Again they said, " We greet you, O our fathers, righteous 
judges, and we ask you to pray for us before God, that He will 
have pity on us, and deliver us out of this passing world. 

" We ask you to pray for us — for us, the only ones left of 
your seed ; We give you a greeting of peace ! 

" O Seth, great master, among the fathers, we greet thee 


with peace ! O Holy Mountain abode of our fathers, we give 
thee a greeting of peace ! " 

Then Noah and his sons wept again, and said, " Alas, for us 
eight souls that are left ! Behold we are taken away from the 
sight of the garden." 

And as they were coming down the mountain they greeted 
the stones, took them in their hands and put them upon their 
shoulders j they stroked down the trees, and did so weeping. 
And they continued coming down from the mountain, until 
they came to the door of the ark. 

Then Noah and his sons turned their faces to the east, and 
requested the Lord to have mercy on them, to save them, and 
to command them where to lay the body of our father Adam. 

Then the Word of God came to Noah, saying, " Lift up the 
body of Adam to the third story [of the ark] , and lay it there 
on the eastern side ; and the gold, the incense and the myrrh 
together with him.'^ 

" And thou and thy sons shall stand before him praying. 
But thy wife, and the wives of thy sons, shall be on the 
western side of the ark ; and they and their wives shall not 
come together." 

Then when Noah heard these words from God, he and his 
sons went into the ark, and laid the body of our father Adam 
on the eastern side, and the three offerings together with him. 

And Noah brought into the ark the body of Adam, on a 
Friday, at the second hour, on the twenty-seventh of the 
month of Gembot. 


Then God said unto Noah, " Go upon the top of the ark and 
blow the trump three times, that all beasts gather together 
unto the ark." 


But Noah said, " Shall the sound of the trump reach unto 
the ends of the earth to gather together the boasts and the 

Then God said unto him, " It is not the sound of this trump 
alone that shall go forth, but My power shall go with it, to make 
it come into the ears of the beasts and of the birds.* 

" And when thou blowest thy trump, 1 will command My 
angel to blow the horn from heaven; and all these animals 
shall be gathered unto thee." 

Then Noah made haste and blew the trump, as God had told 
him. Then the angel blew the horn from heaven, until the 
earth quaked, and all creatures on it trembled. 

Then all the beasts, birds and creeping things were gathered 
together at the third hour, on a Friday ; when all the beasts, 
lions and ostriches went into the lower story at the third hour. 
Then at midday, came the birds and creeping things into the 
middle story ; and Noah and his sons went into the third story, 
at the ninth hour of the day. 

And when Noah, with his wife, his sons and their wives 
came into the upper story, he commanded the women to dwell 
on the western side ; but Noah and his sons, with the body of 
our father Adam, dwelt on the eastern side. 


And Noah stood asking God to save him from the waters of 
the Flood. 

Then God talked to Noah, and said to him, " Of every kind 
of birds, take one pair, male and female of the clean ; and of the 
unclean also one pair, male and female. But also of the clean 
take six [more] pairs, male and female." 

* " All these beasts, birds, and creeping things, shall come to thee by the hand 
of the angel who shall take and bring them to thee to keep them alive. Targ. 
Jonathan, in Gen. vii. 


And Noah did all this. Then when they all had got into 
the ark, God shut to the door of the ark upon them by His 

He then commanded the windows of heaven to open wide, 
and to pour down from them cataracts of water. And so it 
was j by God's order. 

And He commanded all fountains to burst open, and the 
depths to pour forth water, upon the face of the earth. So 
that the sea all round rose above the whole world, and surged, 
and the deep waters arose. 

But when the windows of heaven opened wide, all stores [of 
water] and depths were opened, and all the stores* of the 
winds, and the whirlwind, thick mist, gloom and darkness 
spread abroad. The sun and moon and stars, withheld their 
light. It was a day of terror, such as had never been. 

Then the sea all round, began to raise its waves on high like 
mountains ; and it covered the whole face of the earth. 

But when the sons of Seth, who were fallen into wickedness 
and adultery with the children of Cain, saw this, they then 
knew that God was angry with them ; and that Noah had told 
them the truth. 

Then they all ran round the ark, to Noah, begging and 
entreating him to open for them the door of the ark; inasmuch 
as they could not climb the Holy Mountain, by reason of the 
stones thereof, that were like fire. 

But as to the ark, it was closed and sealed by the power of 
God.^* An angel of God sat upon the ark, and was like a 
captain to Noah, to his sons, and to all inside the ark. 

And the waters of the flood increased on the children of 
Cain and overwhelmed them ; and they began to sink, and the 
words of Noah were fulfilled, which he preached to them 
[saying], the waters of the Flood should come and drown 

And the waters continued above and below over Noah and 

* Lit. locks. 


his sons, until they were suspended in the ark ; and by the 
strength of the water, the ark rose from the earth ; and the 
flesh of every moving thing perished. 

And the water rose until it covered the earth, and until it 
covered all high mountains ;^^ and the waters rose above them, 
and above the tops of high mountains fifteen cubits, by the 
cubit of the Holy Ghost, which is equal to* three cubits [of 
man]. So that the number of these were forty- five cubits 
[above the highest mountains] . 

And the water increased and bare the ark, and brought it to 
the lower side of the garden, which the waters, the rain, the 
whirlwind and all that went about on the earth — did worship. 
As did also Noah and his sons and all that was in the ark — 
they bowed in worship to the holy garden. 

And the water returned to its former state, and destroyed 
every thing that was upon the earth and under heaven. 

But the ark was floating on the waters and rose up before 
the winds ; while the angel of God steered and led it from 
east to west. And the ark thus moved about on the face of 
the waters a hundred and fifty days. 

After that, the ark stood upon the mountains of Ararat,^^ on 
the twenty-seventh day of the month of Tkarnt. 


Then God sent again His order to Noah, saying, " Be 
quiet and wait until the waters are assuaged.'* 

Then the waters parted asunder and returned every water 
to its own place, where it was at first ; the fountains ceased to 
pour fortht over the earth ; the depths that are on the face of 
the earth, ceased to rise ; and the windows of heaven were 
closed. For floods of rain fell from heaven at the beginning 
of the Flood forty days and foi*ty nights. 

* Lit rendered by. f Or, spread. 


But on the first day of the eleventh month the tops of high 
mountains were seen ; and Noah waited yet forty days, and 
then opened the window he had made on the western side of 
the ark, and let go a raven, to see if the waters were assuaged 
from the face of the earth or not,^^ 

Then the raven went forth, but returned no more to Noah ; 
for the harmless dove is the sign of the mystery of the 
Christian Church, 

But Noah waited yet a little while after the waters were 
assuaged, and then sent out a dove, to see if the water had 
retired or not. 

But when the dove went out, she found not a place whereon 
to rest her foot, and no abode ; and she returned to Noah. 

Then Noah waited seven days more, and sent out the dove 
to see if the water had retired or not. And the dove came 
back to Noah, about eventide ; and in her mouth was an olive- 

The meaning of the dove is, that she is taken as a figure of 
the old and of the new [covenants] .^^ The first time when she 
went out, and found nowhere to rest her feet, that is, a place of 
rest [is a figure of] the stiff-necked Jews, in whom no grace 
remained, nor any mercy whatever. Wherefore Christ, the 
meek one, who is figured in the dove, did not find among them 
rest for the sole of His feet. 

But the second time when the dove found a place of rest [is 
a figure of] the nations that have received the glad tidings of 
the holy Gospel, and among whom Christ has found a resting- 


In the six hundred and seventh year of Noah^s life, on the 
second day of the month Barmudeh, the water dried from off 

* Plucked on the Mount of Olives. Targ. Jonath., in Gen. viii. 


the earth.^^ And in the next month, which is Gembot, on the 
twenty-seventh day thereof, which is the day on which Noah 
went into the ark, on that self-same day did Noah also come 
out of the ark, on a Sunday. 

But when Noah, his wife, his sons aod their wives went out 
of the ark, they again came together, and did not part asunder 
one from another; at first, when they went into the ark, the 
men and the women remained apart, Noah fearing lest they 
should come together. But when the Flood was over, they 
again came together, the husband with his wife.^ 

God also had sent great quietness over the beasts, the lions 
that were in the ark, and over the birds and creeping things, 
not to disagree among themselves. 

Then Noah came out of the ark, and built an altar upon the 
mountain. And he stood, and requested the Lord to show him 
of what sacrifices he ought to take, and bring them unto Him 
in offerings. 

Then God sent His Word to Noah, saying, " Noah, take of 
the clean kind, and offer of them upon the altar before me ; 
and let the animals go out of the ark." 

Then Noah went into the ark, and took of clean birds as 
many as God had commanded him ; and offered them up in 
offerings upon the altar before the Lord.* 


Pattern of the covenant God made with Noah, when He showed 
him, the bow on the cloud in heaven. 

And God smelled the smell of Noah's offerings, and He made 
a covenant with him, that the waters of the flood should not 
again come upon the earth, henceforth and for ever. 

* This was the altar built by Adam, on which he, Cain and Abel had oflFered 
nacrifices. Targ. Jon<ithan, in Gen. viii. It was injured by the Flood ; but Noah 
repaired it. Ibid. 


And this is the covenant God made with Noah : — 

God said unto Noah,*" I will make the bow of My covenant 
come out in the cloud; and when it appears, then men shall 
know that it is done in truth. 

" And if I was wroth, when the bow was seen in the cloud, 
then [it would show] that My anger and the punishment I 
meant to bring upon men were over. 

" Then, again, O Noah, I have made this bow of My covenant 
to be seen in heaven, in order that all creatures should see it, 
and think of the trials and afflictions that came upon them at 
first, and repent, and turn from their evil ways.*' 

And God accepted Noah's offering, and blessed him and his 
sons, and said unto them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and 
replenish the face of the earth.'' 

Then God commanded the earth to bring forth herb as it did 
of old, for beasts, for birds, and for all that moves on the earth. 

Then Noah worshipped before God, with his sons and their 
wives J and they praised Him for the salvation He had wrought 
for them. 


After this Noah took his sons, and built them a city and 
called it Semanan ;^^ as they were eight souls that came out of 
the ark. 

And Noah and his sons dwelt on that mountain about a 
hundred years, until he had children and children's children. 

And Noah took a root of vine and planted it, and dressed it 
nntU. it yielded fruit.^^ It was sweet, and Noah took some of 
it, and pressed wine out of it, and took it one night and drank 
of it, and was drunk.^^ And he came in to his wife unawares. 

Then Ham, his son, came into the house in the morning 
and saw his father uncovered, and drunk with wine, and with- 
out sense to know anything. 


Then Ham his son kept on laughing at him, and said, " What 
is this thou hast done, thou old man V* 

But the old man understood not what he said; only Noah's 
wife understood it well. 

Then Ham went out laughing at his father, and told his 
brothers Shem and Japhet what his father had done ; and 
laughed at his parents. 

But his brothers were angry with him, and rebuked bim well 
for so doing ; because they were afraid of him, as regards the 
old man ; for Ham was rough and hard in his talk. 

Then Shem and Japhet rose quickly, and took with them a 
coverlet, and put behind their backs that coverlet that reached 
unto their feet ; and they walked backwards, and turned their 
face towards the way they had gone, until they came to their 
parents. Then they threw the coverlet over them, and went 
from them in haste, so as not to see them. 

But on the morrow after this, Noah's wife told him what 
Ham had said and what he had done. 

Then was Noah very angry with his son Ham* for what he 
had done ; and he cursed him, and made him servant of his 

But Noah blessed Shem and Japhet, his sons, because they 
had behaved well to him. 

Then Noah married another wife, who bare him seven 
cbildren. And he continued to dwell on that mountain until 
the days drew near when he must depart [this life]. And 
Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after he came out of 
the ark. 

Then he called his first-born son Shem, and conversed with 
him, saying, " O my son, hearken unto what I command thee.** 

''Behold [what] I command thee now [is], to hold good 
until I die and ye bury me. Then, when ye have ended mourn- 
ing for me, go into the ark in which we were saved from the 
flood ; then bring out of it the body of our father Adam ; but 
* See the Coran, sur. t, and Hotting., Hits*. Or., p. 35, sq. 


let no one know of it but one that is of thy seed. Then make a 
beautiful case for it, and lay it therein. 

" Then take with thee some bread to be for provision unto 
thee by the way, and wine whereof to drink on thy way ; for 
the land to which thou shalt go is rough and hungry. 

" Then take Melchizedec the youngest son of Cainan,* 
thy son ; for God has chosen him from all generations of men, . 
to stand before Him to worship and to minister unto Him, by 
the body of our father Adam.^^ 

" Then lay the body of Adam in the midst of the earth ; and 
set Melchizedec to stand by it ; and show him how to fulfil his 
ministry before God." 

Moreover Noah said unto Shem his son, " If ye will keep 
my commandment and go [as I tell you], an angel of the Lord 
will go with you, and show you the way, until ye come to the 
place where ye shall lay the body [of Adam] in the midst of 
the earth; for in that self -same place shall God work salvation 
for the whole world. 

" But, O my son, I know that our children forsook this good 
commandment, and went down the Holy Mountain, and mingled 
with the children of Cain, and that they perished with them in 
the waters of the Flood. 

" Know, O my son, that from Adam until this day, every 
one of the ancients, gave commandments to one of the rest, at 
the time of his resting from the flesh, and that they taught 
[these commandments] anjong themselves. 

" The first, O my son, who taught this commandment and 
made it plain, was our father Adam ; he gave it to his son 
Seth, who received it. 

" Then Seth handed it to his son Enos who kept it. And 
Enos gave it to his son Cainan who kept it. Then Cainan gave 
it to his son Mahalaleel, who kept it, and handed it to his son 

" And Jared kept it and gave it to his son Enoch, who also 
* Here the Arabic has Arphaxad, instead of Cainan see above, p. 149. 



kept this commandment and gave it to his son Methuselah, 
who kept it, and gave it to his son Lamech who kept it, and 
who gave it to me, his son ; and I have kept it. 

''But my grandfather Methuselah also gave me a great 
commandment which I have kept; and which I give thee 
likewise. So, then, receive my commandment, and hold fast 
my words ; and hide this mystery within thy heart ; but reveal 
it not to one of all thy kindred. But go, and lay the body of 
our father Adam in the earth 3 and let it remain there unto the 
day of salvation." 


But the ark was closed during the days of Noah ; neither 
was any one allowed to touch it. Yet they went to it, blessed 
themselves in it, and talked about it. 

Noah, however, went into it every evening, to light the lamp 
which he had made before our father Adam, and blessed himself 
in that body. 

And he did not neglect his office regarding the lamp, as it 
was at first in the Cave of Treasures. 

But as Noah knew that after him, the ark would not remain 
whole, and that his children would part asunder and not return 
to look after the body of our father Adam, and that wickedness 
would increase in the earth and abominations among men, 
therefore did he command his son SKem to hasten to take the 
body of our father Adam,* and to remove it unto the middle 
of the earth ; according to God's order. 


Then when Noah had ended giving orders to his son Shem, 
concerning the body of our father Adam, Noah said to his son 
* See below, ch, xviii 


Shem, "Bring hither to me thy brothers, and make them 
come near me." 

Then when they came to Noah, he looked at them and said 
unto them, " my sons, after my death ye shall part asunder, 
and sore troubles shall happen to your race. 

''But I will from now, divide among you the earth into 
three portions ; as every one of you shall be settled in his own 

" Unto Shorn my first-born son, shall his lot be from 
Jerusalem which is a great city, as far as Qardayun and 
Andika.* It takes in the border mountain that reaches unto 
Gefur, between the land of Egypt and that of the Philistines. 

" Unto my next son Ham, his portion shall be from Aris 
towards the south, unto Fardundan and unto Gaduriun, and 
unto the borders of the west. 

''And unto my third son Japhet, his portion shall be from the 
corner of the west towards the south unto Damatha, a large 
tract of country ; and all the north also as far as Aris.''^^ 

He then said to them, " Let every one of you take a portion 
different from that of his brothers ; and let every one of you 
dwell in his own portion." And they settled in it, as he 
commanded them. 

And they all had sons and daughters during their father 
Noah^s lifetime. And Noah divided the earth among them by 
God*s order, in order that there should be no enmity between 
the three brothers. 

Then when Noah had ended his commandments to Shem and 
to his brothers, his hands dropped, his tongue became dumb, 
his eyes closed and he died, like his fathers. He died aged nine 
hundred and fifty years,^'^ on a Wednesday, the second day of 
the month Gembot, on the mountain on the which was the 
ark ; and there he will remain until the day God reveals [his 
resting-place] . 

And they mourned for him forty days.f 

* That is, Bactriana and India. f Eutj-ch., p. 45. 




After they had ended mourning for Noah, an angel of God 
appeared unto Cainan father of Melchizedec, and said unto him 
in a vision, " Knowest thou me ?" And Cainan answered, 
"No, my Lord." 

Then the angel said to him, " I am the angel whom God has 
sent unto thee, to give thee this commandment. And transgress 
not the command of God." 

When Cainan heard this from the angel of God, he wondered 
and said unto him, " Speak, my Lord !" 

And the angel of God said unto him, " I am the angel who 
brought gold to thy father Adam, when he was below the 
garden ; I am the angel who entreated God together with him, 
when he offered his own blood upon the altar. 

" I am Michael the angel who received the soul of Abel the 
just ; I am the angel who was with Seth when he was born in 
the cave. 

" I am the angel who was with Enos and Cainan, and 
Mahalaleel and Jared and Enoch, and Methuselah and Lamech, 
and with Noah. But since he entered into rest, I stand by his 
first-born son Shem. 

'^ And, behold, God has sent me to thee, to take thy son 
Melchizedec, and to remove him to the land, in which God 
shall lay the body of our father Adam, and that he may be 
high exalted before God. Let not thy heart be grieved at his 
going away." 

When Cainan heard these words from the angel, he wor- 
shipped before him ; and said unto him, " The will of God be 
done ! Behold, I and my son are in His hands. Let Him do 
what He pleases." 

This angel appeared unto Cainan, not on account of Cainan'a 
righteousness and purity, but on account of Melchizedec, and of 
his righteousness and purity. 


Then the angel said unto Cainan, " Commit not this mystery 
to any one but to Shem alone." 
And the angel departed from him. 


Then the angel of God came unto Melchizedec that night 
while he was lying on his bed. 

And he appeared unto him in the figure of a youth like him, 
who smote him on the side, and awoke him out of his sleep. 

When Melchizedec heard it, he rose up, and saw the house 
full of light, and a figure standing before him. And he was 
afraid, for he was not accustomed to see angels, but this once 

But the angel prevented fear from overcoming him, and 
anointed him on the head and on the breast, and said unto him, 
" Fear not, I am an angel of God ; and He has sent me to thee 
with this message, that thou fulfil it unto thy God." 

Melchizedec then said unto him, " What is that message ?" 
For he was a youth of a perfect heart. 

And the angel said unto him, " It is that thou go with the 
body of our father Adam, unto the middle of the earth ; and 
that thou stand ministering before it there ; and that thou 
serve God ; for He has chosen thee from thy childhood. For 
thou art of the seed of the blessed.'' 

Then Melchizedec said unto him, " Who will bring the body 
of my father Adam, and me with it, unto the middle of the 
earth ? " 

And the angel said unto him, " Shem, the son of Noah thy 
father's grandfather." 

Then the angel strengthened his heart, and comforted him 
tenderly one whole hour, and then said unto him, " Commit 
not these hidden words to any but to Shorn only f^ lest the 


report of it spread abroad ; and they hang on to the body of 
Adam, and not let it go to the land, to which God has com- 
manded [it to be taken] ." 

And the angel departed from him. 


Then the angel went to Shem the son of Noah and said unto 
him, " Arise, and take the body of Adam, as thy father Noah 
gave thee commandment ; and take with thee Melchizedec and 
go with them to the place ordered by God ; and tarry not." 

When it was day, Shem made a beautiful case and hid it 
close to the ark. He then prepared bread and wine and 
provisions, and came to Cainan; and inquired for his son 
Melchizedec. Then Cainan began to tell him all that the 
angel had said unto himj and he gave him up his son 
Melchizedec, with a good heart. 

Then Shem said to Cainan, " Keep this mystery secret, and 
reveal it to no one.'' 

Then Shem took Melchizedec and they saddled an ass 
between them, and they went to the ark. But they had no 
key wherewith to open the ark ; for Noah had fastened it with 
a padlock, after he had come out of it. 

When, therefore, they came to the ark, they bethought 
themselves how to open it. Then came Shem to the door, and 
said to Melchizedec, '' Come, open it, thou great God." 

Then came Melchizedec to the door when he heard [Shem's 
voice] , and seized the padlock ; and at once the door was 

But a voice cried from within the ark, and said, " Rejoice, O 
thou priest of the Most High God, for that thou hast been found 
meet to enter upon the office of priest of God ; the first created 
by Him in the world." 


This voice was from the Holy Ghost. 

And Melchizedec knew that voice when it breathed into his 
face ; he knew it also through great grace that was in him. 

He then marvelled, and said to Shem, " my Lord, I know 
by the breathing in my face, though I saw no form, and heard 
no voice speaking to me; for I saw no one. This voice is 
from the body of our father Adam/' 

And Shem remained trembling, not knowing what to say to 

But while they were wondering at the door of the ark, the 
Word of God came, that said, *' I am He that made thee priest 
and that breathed of My Spirit into thee. Thou art My righteous 
priest ; and thou art worthy to bear the body of Adam whom I 
created, and into whom I breathed of My Spirit. And I made 
him priest and a king, and a prophet. Go in first, and bring 
out his body.'' 

Then Melchizedec went into the ark, and bowed in worship 
to the body of our father Adam; he blessed himself in it, 
and brought it out ; the angel Michael, helping him the while 
to carry it. 

And Shem went in also, and brought out the gold, the 
incense and the myrrh, and laid them together with the body 
of our father Adam ; he then placed the body within the case, 
and shut it upon the body. And then he shut the door of the 
ark, as it was at first.^^ 


Then Shem and Melchizedec took the body of Adam, and 
went on their way ; and the angel of God went with them and 
showed them whither to go. And so they went on that day 
until the evening ; and alighted at a certain place to rest. 

Then Shem and Melchizedec stood up to pray; and while 
they prayed there came a voice from inside the coffin of Adam, 


that said, " Glory to God who created me, who gave me life, 
who made me die ; and who again returns me to the earth out 
of which He took me !" 

And the voice blessed the youth Melchizedec and said unto 
him, " Of all our race, God chose no one but thee ; neither did 
He anoint any one of them priest with His own hand, but thee ; 
neither did He breathe into the face of any one His pure Spirit 
as He breathed it into thee ; and I rejoice, my son, that thou 
hast been found worthy of such honour from God.'' 

Then the voice withdrew from Melchizedec, who wondered 
at this voice that came forth from a dead man. But it was 
done by the power of God. 

But when Shem saw this first wonder wrought on Melchize- 
dec, he kissed his face, and rejoiced greatly on his account. 
But as for Melchizedec, he tasted nothing that night, for the 
joy that filled his heart ; but he continued standing before the 
coffin of Adam, praising God and praying until morning. This 
vision happened to Melchizedec in the fifteenth year of his age. 

Then Shem and Melchizedec put the coffin upon the ass, 
and went on their way ; and the angel of God went with them. 
And it was so that when they came to rough places, the angel 
bare them up by the power of God, and made them pass over 
them, whether they were lands or mountains. 

And so they went on their way until the evening of the 
second day, when they alighted to rest, after their custom. 

Then Shem and Melchizedec stood up to pray j and as they 
were praying, behold a great light shone over them, wherefore 
Melchizedec did' not feel* aught of fatigue, by reason of the 
strength of God, that was in him ; but he rejoiced like one 
that is going to his wedding. 

But they stood praying as they were wont before the coffin 
of our father Adam. Then came a voice from the top of the 
coffin, that said to Melchizedec and to Shem, " Behold, we are 
drawing near to the place our Lord has decreed for us." 

* Lit. know. 


And the voice said unto Melchizedec, " Upon the land to 
which we are going, shall the Word of God come down ; and 
suffer and be crucified on the place in which my body is 

" The crown of my head shall be baptized with His blood ; 
and then shall my salvation be wrought ; and He shall restore 
me to my kingdom, and shall give me my priesthood and my 
gift of prophecy.'^ 

Then the voice was silent by the power of God. 

But Melchizedec and Shem marvelled at the voice that 
talked with them. And Melchizedec remained the whole of 
that night praying joyfully until the day dawned. Then they 
put the body of Adam on the ass, and went on their way. 

And the augel of God went with them, until they neared the 

Then he went before them, and stood before the ass, and 
took down from her the coffin, himself alone ; and not as on 
the two former occasions, when Melchizedec took it down 
[from the ass] . 

But when the coffin reached the rock, the rock split asunder 
into two parts, — that was the place for the coffin ; and 
Melchizedec and Shem knew thereby that it was the place God 
had appointed. 

Then the angel went up from them into heaven, while saying 
unto God, " Behold, the body of our father Adam has arrived* 
and is come to the place Thou didst choose. I have done that 
which Thou didst command me.^' 

Then came the Word of God to the angel, saying, " Go down 
to Melchizedec and strengthen his heart ; and command him 
to abide by the body of Adam. And when Shem enters into 
rest, tell Melchizedec to go, and to take from Shem the bread 
and wine he has with him, and to preserve them." 



Then the angel came down from God, in the figure of a man, 
who appeared to Melchizedec and to Shem, and strengthened 
their hearts. 

He then laid the body of our father Adam in its place ; and 
said to Melchizedec, '^Take from Shem the bread and the 
wine.^' And he took them, as the angel told him [to do] . 

But Melchizedec and Shem stood praying by the body of 
our father Adam until the evening, when a great light came 
down upon the body, and angels ascended and descended in 
that place upon the body of our father Adam. 

They were rejoicing, and praising, and saying, " Glory be 
to Thee, O God, who didst create the worlds; and madest 
men of the dust of the earth, to exalt them above heavenly 

And the angels thus praised God over the body of our 
father Adam, the whole of that night, until the dawn of 

But as the sun rose, the Word of God came to Melchizedec, 
and said to him, ''Arise, and take twelve of these stones; 
make of them an altar, and offer upon it of the bread and 
wine that was with Shem ; and offer them, thou and he." 

Then when Melchizedec heard the Word of God, he 
worshipped between his hands ; and he hastened, and did 
as God commanded him. 

And at the time he was offering the gift upon the altar, and 
asked God to sanctify it, the Holy Ghost came down upon 
the offering ; and the mountain was filled with light. 

And angels said unto him, " This offering is acceptable unto 
God. Glory be to him who created earthly men, and has 
revealed great mysteries unto them !" 

Then the Word of God appeared to Melchizedec,^ and said 


unto him, ''Behold, I have made thee priest; and thou and 

Shem shall offer this offering thou didst make first; and in 

like manner as thou didst set up^° these twelve solid foundation 

stones, will I raise twelve apostles to be the pillars of the world. 

And they are firm. 

" In like manner also, as thou didst make this altar, will I 

make thee an altar in the world ; and like as thou didst make 

an offering of bread and wine, will I also present the offering 

of My Body and Blood, and make it [to be] unto forgiveness 

of sins. 

" And this place on which thou art standing and in which 

the body of Adam is laid, will I make a holy place; all 

creatures on earth shall be blessed in it ; and in it I will grant 

forgiveness unto all who come hither." 

Then the Word of God, blessed Melchizedec — named him 

priest — and then went up from him into heaven in glory and 

rejoicing with His angels. 


Then Melchizedec praised God ; and he and Shem made an 
offering. And Shem stayed with him that day, to rest from 
the toil of the journey. 

But when the day dawned, it seemed good to Shem to 
depart. Then Melchizedec wished him God speed, and blessed 
him, and said unto him, " The Lord God who led us to this 
place, be with thee ; and guide thee until thou come to thine 
own place. "^^ 

Melchizedec said also to him, " When they inquire of thee 
about me, direct them not in the way ; that they come not to 
me. And wheo my father and my mother ask thee about me, 
say to them, ' He has departed [on a pilgrimage] ; and I do 
not know the place of his pilgrimage.' 


" So tliat, when ttou sayest so to them, their hope of me will 
be cut short ; and they will feel it is of no use thinking of me ; 
so that they will not press thee, and make thee come to me." 

Shem, then departed, and returned to his kindred ;^' while 
Melchizedec remained standing before the body of our father 
Adam, ministering unto God, and worshipping Him evermore. 

And an angel abode with him, who protected him and 
brought him food, until the time of Abraham the patriarch. 

And the raiment of this Melchizedec was of skins, with 
a leathern girdle around his loins. And he ministered unto 
God, with much praying and fasting. 


But Shem and his brothers, multiplied abundantly upon the 
earth ; and begat sons and daughters ; and went on this way, 
until Shem was five hundred and fifty years old, when he 

Then they embalmed him, and continued mourning for him 
forty days. 

After this, Arphaxad, son of Shem, lived four hundred and 
eighty-five years, and then died ; and they embalmed him and 
mourned for him forty days. 

Then after him was Cainan, son of Arphaxad and father of 
Melchizedec, who lived five hundred and eighty-nine years, and 
then died.3* 

After him Saleh, son of Cainan, and brother of Melchizedec 
lived four hundred and eight years, and then died. 

After him Eber* his son, lived four hundred and thirty-four 
years, and then died. 

Then Phalek was bom when his father was two hundred 
and seven years old. In the days of Phalek, the earth was 
divided a second time among the three sons of Noah, Shem, 
Ham, and Japhet. 
♦ Ebcr took to wife Azurad Nebrud's [Nimrud's] daughter. Kufale,c. viii, p. 34. 


Wherefore were they much aggrieved through this division 
among themselves ; because during their father's life-time, they 
were gathered together. But now they were divided asunder, 
and much affliction befell them on that account. 

But Phalek died, and they buried him in his own city 
Phalek. For they had built a city, and had called it after his 

But after his death, which happened when he was four 
hundred and thirty years old, there were great disturbances, 
and men gathered together within fenced cities. 

And after this, tongues (there are seventy -two) were divided; 
for God divided them when men built the tower in Sennaar ;^^* 
but it was destroyed over them.^^ And God divided their 
languages j and what remained of them He dispersed over 
the earth ; because they built without a fixed plan. Therefore 
God dispersed them and scattered them, and brought upon 
them the division of their languages ; until if one of them 
spake, no other understood what he said.^^ And the number of 
languages is seventy-two. 

And when they were thus divided, they had over them 
seventy-two rulers, one to every tongue, and to every country, 
by way of a king. And of the seed of Japhet were six peoples. 


Then Ragu, Phalek's son, lived two hundred and thirty-two 
years, and died. But when Ragu, Phalek's first-bom son, was 
one hundred and thirty years old, there reigned one of the 
first kings that ever reigned on the earth, whose name was 
Nimrud, a giant. 

That Nimrud saw a cloud of light under heaven ; a mere 
apparition of Satan. And he inclined his heart to it, and 
coveted its beauty ; and then called to one whose name was 

♦ Nimrnd provided them with food from his hunt. Abul-pharaj. Dyn. Arab., 
p. 18; and Syr., p. 9. 


Santal, a carver, and said to him, " Carve me a crown of gold, 
after the pattern of that cloud/'^^ 

Then Santal made him a crown [of gold] which Nimmd 
took and placed upon his own head. Wherefore was it said 
that a cloud had come [down] from heaven, and overshadowed 
him. And he became so wicked, as to think within himself 
that he was God. 

And in those days Ragu was one hundred and eighty years 
old, and in his one hundred and fortieth year, Yanuf* reigned 
over the land of Egypt. 

He is the first king that reigned over it; and he built the 
city of Memphis, and named it after his own name. That is 
Misr ; whose name is rendered Masrin. 

This Yanuf died ; and in his stead, in the days of Ragu, one 
from the land of India reigned, whose name was Sasen ; and 
who built the city of Saba. And all the kings who reigned 
over that country were called Sabaeans, after the name of the 

And it was so, until the days of Solomon, son of David. 

Then again Phar'an reigned over the children of Saphir, and 
built the city of Saphirf with stones of gold ; and that is the 
landj of Sar'ania, and because of these stones of gold, they 
say that the mountains of that country and the stones thereof 
are all of gold. 

Then the children of Lebensa of the country of India, made 
king over them, one named Bahlul, who built the city of Bahlu. 

Then Ragu died in his two hundred and eighty-ninth 


After [him] came Serok^^ his son, in whose days idol-gods 

of stone, were openly worshipped in the world. The children 

* Called Panophis [Apop, Apophis] by Bar. Hebr., Syr., p. 8. 
t Sophir (Ophir) is the Coptic word for " India." J Or, city. 

§ The whole of this chapter is given, almost word for word, by Entychus, in his 
Naeam al-jawahir, pp. 58, 60. 


of men began to make idols of stone, the first of which, were 
Kahthon and Helodon. 

And the children of men multiplied upon the earth, and their 
wickedness increased also ; for they had neither law nor order ; 
and no teachers to guide them in the way of righteousness ; 
nor any one to be judge among them. 

Wherefore they grew worse and worse, and wandered farther 
from the way of God; every one of them did what he himself 
listed ; and they made for themselves idol-gods, which they 

They had no hope in the resurrection of the dead. But 
whenever one of them died, they buried him, and set up an 
idol over his grave; and said, that was his god, that would 
show him mercy in his grave. They said also, as regards the 
dead, that when his god was set up over his grave, the 
remembrance of him, would not be cut off from the face of the 

This was a common saying brought out by Satan ; and the 
earth was thus filled with idols ; and those idols were of divers 
kinds, men and women. 

After this Serok died two hundred and thirty years old ; and 
they embalmed him in Sar'ania his city, that was built in his 

After that Nahor, when twenty -nine years old begat Terah. 
And when Nahor was eighty-six years of age, God looked 
down upon the children of men, [and saw] that they were 
ruined and worshipped idols. 

Then God sent forth winds, and the whirlwind, and earth- 
quakes on the earth, until the idols were broken one against 
another. Yet the children of men did not repent of their sins, 
neither did they turn to God from their iniquities that He 
might save them ; but rather increased in wickedness. 

And in the twentieth year of Terah's life, the worship of 
idols spread over the earth in the city of Aarat, which Barwin, 
the son of Eber, had built. 


And at that time there was a rich man living in it, who 
died ; and his son made an idol of gold in the likeness of his 
father, and set it up on his [father's] grave. 

He then ordered one of his servants, to stand by the idol, 
and to minister unto it ; to sweep the ground around it, to pour 
water to it and to burn incense. 

But when Satan saw this he entered into the idol of gold, 
and talked to the servant, like his master's father that was 
dead ; and said to him, " Thou doest well thus," 

After this a thief took by surprise the house of the youth, 
son of the man who was dead ; who then came to his father's 
grave, weeping. 

And he said, " my father, they have carried away all my 

Then Satan answered him from within the idol, and said, 
" Do not stay here, but go and bring thy son, and offer him 
up in oblation to me, and then I will return to thee all thy 

Then that youth went, and did with his son, as Satan had 
commanded him. And at that time Satan entered into him, 
and taught him to practise enchantments, and magic, .the 
mixture of drugs, and divination. 

That was the first evil example [of the kind] set to men, to 
take their children and to offer them up in oblation to idols 
and to devils. 


Then in the hundredth year of Nahor, God looked down 
upon the children of men [and saw] that they sacrificed their 
children to idols. 

Then God commanded the stores of winds to open, and to 
send forth the whirlwind, and gales, and darkness upon the 
whole face of the earth, until all the idols and images, and 


figures wero brought together [by the winds] in mountains 
upon mountains high. " And the idols remained buried under 
them until this day.*^ 

Many wise men have written about this wind, that it was 
the wind of the Flood ; and many of them say it was the water 
of the Flood that thus brought together these mountains [of 
idols] . 

But they erred, and said what is false concerning it ; because 
ere the water of the Flood came upon the earth, there were no 
idols in it. But the Flood came upon the men at that time 
because of their adulteries, and of the sins which they com- 
mitted among themselves ; both the children of Cain, and 
those who followed them. 

Moreover at that time the whole earth was not filled with 
people ; but only the land of the garden, in which dwelt the 
children of Seth ; and the place inhabited by the children of 
Cain ; besides that, the whole earth was bare [of inhabitants] . 

But when the Flood came, it bare the ark, and brought it 
to this land of trouble. And this earth was filled with people ; 
and that land was laid waste. 

Then in those days, king Nimrud saw a flaming fire in 
the east, which arose from the earth.* 

Then said Nimrud, *' What is that fire l"f He then went 
towards it ; and when he saw it, he bowed to it in worship, 
and appointed a priest to minister before it, to burn incense 
to it, and to sacrifice victims to it. From that day the 
men of Fars began to fill the earth. 

Then Satan the worker of idols saw a fountain of water 
near the fire-pit, and he came to it, and looked at it, and made 
a horse of gold, and set it up on the edge of the fountain of 
water j and it so happened that all those who came to wash in 
that fountain of water, bowed in worship to that golden horse j 

* Joseph., Ant. Jud., lib. i, c. iv, 2, 3. 

t The whole of this paragraph is told word for word by Eutychus, Nazam al-j., 
p. 62, sq. 



and from that time, the people of Fars began to worship 

But the priest* whom Nimrud appointed to minister to the 
fire and to bum incense to it, wished to be a teacher, and wise 
of the same wisdom as Nimrud, whom Barwin, Noah's fourth 
son had taught. 

That priest, therefore, kept on asking Satan, while standing 
before the fire, to teach him this evil ministry and abominable 
wisdom. So, when Satan saw him doing his best in the 
service [of the fire], he talked to him, and said, "No man can 
become a teacher, or wise, or great before me, unless he 
hearkens to me, and goes and weds his mother, his sister and 
his daughter.'' 

Then that priest hearkened to Satan in all that he com- 
manded him, and taught him all manner of wisdom and of 
wickednesses. And from that time, the people of Fars have 
committed like sins unto this day. 

And Nimrud built great cities in the east; and wrought 
all manner of iniquities in them.*^ 

* That priest was called Arde8hau. Nazam al-j., p. 65. 


1300K IV. 


Then when Terah was two hundred and thirty years old, he 
fell sick, and called Abraham' his son,^ and said unto him, 
" my son, I wish to die." 

But Abraham stood up and comforted him, paid him all due 
honour, and did not aggrieve him about his being a maker of 

For Abraham his son, was a righteous man, and could not 
bear idols ;^ but he paid him all due respect, as being his 

Then Terah died ; and Abraham and Nahor buried him in a 

But when Abraham was grown up, God said unto him, " 
Abraham, come out of thy land, of thy kindred and of thy 
father's house, and go to the land that I will show thee." 

Then Abraham arose, and took Sarah his wife, and Lot his 
brother's son,* and they came to the land of the Amorites.* 
And Abraham was seventy years old when he saw this vision ; 
and this was his first wandering from the land of the east, to 
the western side of the river Euphrates. 

So Abraham came, and dwelt among kings; and those 
kings rose up against his brother's son, and carried him away 

* Lot was the son of Haran, Abraham's brother, who perished in trying to put 
out the fire set by Abraham to the idol temple at Ur. Abul-pharaj., Dyiv. Arab, 
p. 20. Cedrcnus, Eist. Comp., p. 48. 



captive.* Then Abraham took his servants, and all those who 
were about him, and came to his brother's son, and delivered 
him out of their hands. 

At that time Abraham was eighty years old, and no son was 
born to him, because that Sarah his wife, was barren. 

Then as he was returning from the war with those kings, 
the grace of God drew him, until he had passed over the hill of 
Nablus j and from the hill of Nablus, he came near to Jerusalem, 
ere it was built.f 

Then Melchizedec, priest of the Most High God, came out, 
and welcomed him with joy. And Abraham, when he saw 
Melchizedec, made haste and bowed to him in worship, and 
kissed him on the face ; and M^elchizedec gave him a good 

Then Abraham gave Melchizedec a tenth of all he had with 
him. J After that Abraham communed with Melchizedec of 
the holy mysteries which Melchizedec had consecrated with 
his own hand. For that was an exalted place, not by man's 
hand, but God Himself had anointed it. 

But after Abraham had communed with Melchizedec, God 
said unto Abraham, " Fear not, great is thy reward with Me ; 
and in like manner as Melchizedec My high priest blessed 
thee, and made thee partaker with himself of Holy Mysteries, 
so will I make thee partaker with him of heavenly grace." 

Again did God say to Abraham, " In blessing will I bless 
thee, and in multiplying will I multiply thy seed upon the face 
of the earth." 

* Og, King of Bashan, who had been saved by sitting on the top of Noah's ark, 
and who was among those kings, came and told Abraham that they had taken Lot 
captive. Targ. Jonathan, in Gen. xiv. 

t The Kufale dwells at great length on the history of Abraham, borrowed 
chiefly from the Scripture account. But whether by accident or otherwise, it 
makes no mention of Melchizedec, but only of priests and of tithe, as an institution 
of God for ever. 

X Eutych., Nazamal-j., p. 66. 



After this there was a famine in the land of Palestine ; and 
Abraham went down into the land of Egypt. 

And Sarah his wife was with him, and she was good-looking. 

So Abraham said to her, " Say not, I am Abraham's wife, 
lest they kill me, and take thee from me. But say, I am his 

Then when they came into the land of Egypt,^ men spake to 
Pharaoh king of Egypt, and said to him, " Behold a man has 
come hither ; and with him is his beautiful sister." 

Then Pharaoh sent and took her from Abraham, who 
remained weeping. 

But God in His mercy sent an angel who smote Pharaoh, 
and said to him, " Send back to Abraham his wife, lest God 
kill thee." 

Then in the morning, Pharaoh called Abraham, and said 
unto him, " Forgive me." He then gave him his wife Sarah ; 
and gave to Sarah, Hagar the Egyptian, and gave her many 

After this Abraham took Sarah his wife, with Hagar her 
maid-servant, and returned to Palestine. 

And after that, Abraham took to himself Hagar to wife,* 
who bare him Ishmael, when Abraham was eighty-seven years 

But in that Abraham said, " Sarah is my sister," he did not 
lie ; inasmuch as Terah, his father, married two wives ; one of 
which was called Tona,t the mother of Abraham, who died 
shortly after he was born. 

Then Terah married again another wife whose name was 
Tahdif,J who bare him Sarah, whom Abraham married, and 

* She was the daughter of Pharaoh, son of Nimrud who had cast Abram into 
the fiery furnace. Targ. Jonathan, in Gen. xvi. 

t Called Yuna, Eutych., Nazam al-j., p. 65. X Called Tohwait, Eutych., ibid. 


who, for that reason, said, " She is my sister " — on my father's 
side, but not on my mother's. 

After this, when Abraham was dwelling in tents, the Lord 
came to him with angels of His, and gave him a sign of the 
birth of his son Isaac,'' who was born to him when he was a 
hundred years old. The Lord showed him also many mysteries. 

Then days after this, God said to Abraham, when Isaac was 
fourteen years old, *' Offer unto me thy son Isaac, in oblation."^ 

Then Abraham fortified himself and took courage for this 
trial ; and brought his son to offer him in oblation to God.* 
But God redeemed Isaac with a lamb that was tied to a bush. 

And the bush to which the lamb was tied, is the very place 
into which the tree of the Cross was planted. And the lamb 
that saved Isaac from death, was a figure of the Lamb of God 
who saved us all from death. 

That mountain also, on which king David saw an angel 
standing with a sharp sword of fire in his hand, as if going to 
smite Jerusalem with it — is the place where Abraham saw with 
the eye of the Holy Ghost, the Son of God, hanging on it. 

For this reason did the Lord say to the Jews, '' Abraham, 
your father, rejoiced and longed to see my day, and he did see 
it, and was glad." 

Again, this is the place, as the blessed Paul said, " For the 
sake of Jesus Christ my Lord am I minister of the circum- 
cision " — where Christ was circumcised on the eighth day.* 

That is also the place where the patriarch Abraham offered 
np an oblation to God. 

And again, as it was in the days of Moses, when they offered 
up a lamb for the sins of the people, to cleanse them from 
their sins — so also did the Lamb of God offer up Himself in 
oblation for us, to set us free from our sins. 

* The translator or writer of the book evidently thought Christ was circumcised 
in the Temple. This clause seems ill-joined with the rest. 



After ttis Melchizedec showed himself to men, who saw him, 
and who were comforted by his words, everywhere. 

The kings of the earth and peoples, when they heard his 
voice, did gather together; a multitude of creatures and of 
kings ;* that numbered twelve hosts. 

They came to him and bowed to him in worship, and were 
blessed by him, and asked him, saying, " Come, let us make 
thee king over us.'' 

But Melchizedec king of Salem, and priest of the Most High 
God, would not. 

And the kings wondered at his beauty; their hearts were 
drawn to him by his discourse, and they fell down at his feet 
in worship ; and they asked God, that Melchizedec might 
dwell among them in their palaces. 

But Melchizedec would not, and said unto them, " I cannot 
leave this place, and go to another one.'' 

So those kings said among themselves, " Let every one of 
us who can, come, and let us build a city on this mountain for 

They all took pleasure in the work, brought together 
materials in abundance, and built the City of Jerusalem, 
that means " the middle of the earth." 

Then Melchizedec continued to dwell in it, at that place; 
and the kings came, and were blessed by him, until the day of 
his departure, when his life ended in this world. 


After this, Abraham ordered one of his servants, f to take a 

* They were twelve in number. Eutych., Naz. al-j., p. 66, sq., where the same 
Btory is told. 

t Eliezer, of Damascus, son of Mesek, one of Abraham's servants, Kufale, 
c. xiv., p. 55, 6 Si vibi; MaaiK tiJQ o'lKoy tpovg fiov, ovtos AafiaoKoi; EXif^cp, Ixx, 
Gen. XV, 3. 


wife for his son Isaac ; and adjured him not to marry Isaac, 
but to one of his own kindred. 

And Abraham entered into rest when one hundred and 
seventy-five years old ; and Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried 

Then Isaac married when he was forty years old ; and Esau 
and Jacob his sons, were bom unto him when he was about 
sixty years of age.* And God blessed Isaac greatly. 

Then after this Jacob went to the land of Haran, to Laban, 
his mother's brother, and married his two daughters Leah and 

He had by Leah, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, 
^nd Zebulun ; and by Rachel he had Joseph and Benjamin. 

Then he had also by Zilpah, Leah's maid-servant. Gad and 
Aser ; and by Bilhah, Rachel's maid-servant, he had Dan and 

And about twenty years after Jacob's return from the land 
of Haran, before his father Isaac died, Joseph was sold by his 
brothers, because they were jealous of him. 

But when Isaac died, his two sons Esau and Jacob came to 
him, embalmed him, and laid him in the sepulchre of his 

Then six years after the death of Isaac, Rebecca died ; and 
they buried her by Sarah, Abraham's wife. And when, after 
that Leah, Jacob's wife died, they buried her by the side of 

Then after this Judah took to himself a wife whose name 
was Habwadiya, that means, " house- wife j"t but in the law 
her name is Sewa. 

She was of a Canaanitish family, and Jacob's heart suffered 

* Rebecca,, when with child and before the birth of Esan and Jacob, went to 
consult Melchizedec, who told her she had two nations in her womb, and that the 
elder should serve the younger. Eutych., Nazam al-j., p. 77. 

•f And in the Arabic original it is rendered, "Sahaniyeh," that means a black 
linen girdle. 


much on that account ; and he said to Judah his son who had 
married that wife, " The God of Abraham and of Isaac will 
not allow the seed of this Canaanitish woman to mingle with 
my seed/' 

But some days after this, Sewa bare three sons unto Judah, 
whose names were Er, Onan, and Selah. And when Er was 
grown up, Judah married him, his first-born son, unto a woman 
named Tamar, daughter of Kadesh Levi. 

And Er continued with her a long time, and behaved after 
the manner of the men of Sodom and Gomorrah. But God 
looked down upon his evil deeds and killed him. 

Then Judah married his son Onan to Tamar, saying, " He 
shall raise seed unto his brother." 

But him also did God kill because of his evil deeds ; on 
account of Jacob's curse, " That no Canaanitish seed should 
mingle with his own." So God would not let any of it mingle 
with that of Jacob the righteous. 

Therefore did Tamar go to Judah her father-in-law, who had 
intercourse with her, not knowing she was his son's wife; and 
she bare unto him twins, Pharez and Zarah. 


After this Jacob went to Joseph, and continued fourteen 
years in the land of Egypt, where he died at the age of one 
hundred and fifty-seven; when the good Joseph was fifty- 
three years old. 

Then when he was dead, Joseph called cunning Egyptian 
embalmers, who embalmed him beautifully ; and then Joseph 
carried his body to the land of Canaan, and buried him in the 
sepulchre of his fathers Abraham and Isaac. 

After this Pharez begat Judah, and Judah begat Ezrom, 
and Ezrom begat Aram ; and Aram begat Aminadab ; and 
Aminadab bcjxat Naasson. 


And this Naasson was great among the sons of Judah ; and 
the daughter of Aminadab married Eleazar the son of Aaron, 
who prayed to God, until His wrath abated. 

Thus, my son, have I told thee in detail the genealogies 
from the first until now. 


After this, there began to issue a race from Naasson, who 
was great among the sons of Judah; and from him began 
a kingdom and a priesthood, and the Jews became celebrated 
through him. 

Then Naasson begat Salmon, and Salmon begat Boaz of 
Rahab. And thou must know that from Boaz and Ruth the 
Moabitess, began the kingdom whereby Lot, the son of 
Abraham's brother, obtained a share [in the generations] of 
the kingdom [of Judah]. 

For God denied not seed to Lot, neither would He cut it 
short. For this Lot was righteous, and shared all Abraham's 
troubles with him ; and received the angels of God in Sodom 
and Gomorrah. 

Therefore did God give to Lot's children fellowship in the 
kingdom, and that was [reckoned] for righteousness unto Lot 
the righteous. For this reason also were [Lot's children] 
mentioned among the genealogies of the kingdom of Abraham 
and of Lot ; for Christ was born of their seed. 

Then, again, Obed, Ruth's son, was of Lot's seed, on his 
mother's [side] ; and Obed begat Jesse ; and Jesse begat 
David the king. And king David begat Solomon ; all these 
are of Ruth the Moabitess. 

Again, Amnan,* the daughter of [Dan] , king of the Ammo- 
nites, was of Lot's seed ; and Solomon the king took this 

* Naamah. 1 Kg., xiv, 21, 31. 


daughter of Dan to wifoj and had by her, Eehoboam, who 
reigned after Solomon. 

But king Solomon took to himself many wives, seven 
hundred daughters of kings, three hundred concubines, one 
thousand in number. 

But although Solomon took to himself these many wives, 
they did not bare him a single male child, but Rehoboam, of 
Amnan, the daughter of Dan, king of Ammon ; who was of 
a blessed race. 

Thus, again, God would not allow the seed of Canaanites to 
mingle with that of strange peoples, which God had made 
strangers. And this shows that Christ came of the seed of 
Abraham the blessed father, and of Lot his brother's son. 

And all the families of the children of Israel in the land of 
Egypt, were Levi, Amram, Moses, Joshua, and Caleb, son of 
Jephunneh ; all these were great chiefs over their peoples. 


As to Moses, when they had thrown him into the river, 
Sephurah, the daughter of Pharaoh, took him up thence, and 
brought him up. She it is, whom the Hebrews call Mariam, the 
mother of Moses. 

And Moses abode forty years in Pharaoh's house ; and other 
forty years in the land of Midian, ere God spake to him. 

Then, again, when God spake to Moses from within the bush 
his tongue faltered ; and [his] tongue was — as God said, " From 
the time that I spake to My servant Moses, he was of a faltering 

And Moses dwelt forty years in the land of Egypt, and forty 
years in the land of Midian, with the priest Jethro, his father- 
in-law ; then forty years more in the wilderness ; when Moses 
died, aged one hundred and twenty years. 

Then after him arose Joshua, the ton of Nun. He was 


twenty-seven years judge over the children of Israel, and 
exorcised judgment over them ; he was prophet among them, 
and kept them, and led them in the right way j and he entered 
into rest and died, when sixty years old. 

Then after him arose Kusarat the judge, eight years, and he 
died ; and after him Phutamiral, the son of Kaba, judged the 
children of Israel forty years, and died. 

After him Naod, son of Phuru, judged the children of Israel 
eighty years. But in the twenty-fifth year of Naod, ended 
four thousand years since Adam. Naod died, and Sikar judged 
the children of Israel. But in his days a king of Canaan rose 
against Sikar, wishing to make war against him. But God 
gave Sikar victory over him, whom he defeated; and Sikar 
judged forty years. 

After him Yarod was judge over the people of Israel, forty 
years ; and after him Abimelec judged ten years, and died. 

And after him Banu, son of Yuorani, judged twenty-three 
years, and died. After him Yar of Phila, judged twenty-two 
years, and died. 

After him the son of Aminadab, judged fifty-eight years, and 
died. And after him the daughter of Nasyamu judged seven 
years, and died. 

After her, Ansyus judged seven years, and died ; and after 
him the Philistine judged forty years. But God gave him 
into the hands of the champion Samson, who slew him. 
Then the champion Samson arose and was judge over the 
children of Israel twenty years, and then died. 

Then the children of Israel were left without a judge twelve 
years, when Eli the priest began to judge ; and judged them 
forty years, and then died. 

After him Samuel was judge over the children of Israel forty 
years, and. died. Then after him, Saul reigned over them forty 
years, and died. 

Then after him, David reigned over the children of Israel 
forty years, and then died. And after him, his son Solomon 


arose, who also reigned forty years over the children of Israel, 
and then died. 

He wrought more wonders in the earth than all other kings, 
who were before him. For he was the first whom God filled 
with wisdom. So that he made [and did] many things peculiar 
to him ; so far as to make a ship, and go in it to the city of 
Saphir; [where] he wrought gold in ornaments, and brought 
it to Jerusalem. 

During his reign, there was great peace ; there was no 
trouble ; but there was peace between him and Hiram king of 
Tyre ; who reigned five hundred years over the city of Tyre, 
and whose kingdom lasted from the reign of Solomon, to that 
of Zedekiah ; until, from the length of his days and of his 
years, and from the greatness of his kingdom, he exalted 
himself and said, " I am God, and no man."'^ 

God was wroth against him because of his evil deed ; and 
God looked down upon it, and delivered him into the hands of 
king Nebuchadnezzar who put him to death ; removed his army, 
and took his spoil. 


But we will inform thee of the things king Solomon'^ gave 
every day in his house. On account of his many wives, they 
made bread in his house of thirty cores of fine flour ; one 
hundred cores of wheat flour, which hardly sufiiced. And they 
slaughtered in his house daily, ten bullocks well-fatted, and 
twenty fat oxen, and one hundred sheep ; besides what they 
slew of bufialoes, gazelles and wild deer, which they hunted 
every day. And in Solomon's house they drank daily four 
hundred basins of wine. And many other things did they. 

And Solomon reigned over his large kingdom with the 
greatest wisdom ever found. But he did not keep his soul ; 
but inclined his heart to the love of women, and forsook God 


who had created him, and who had given him this kingdom. 
And he died in his denial of Him, and iu his sins. 

After him reigned Rehoboam, his son, seventeen years, and 
did evil. He defiled Jerusalem with abominable sacrifices, 
and sacrificed to Satan ; and adultery increased greatly in his 
days. Wherefore God cut off his kingdom swiftly ; and took 
it from the house of David. 

But in the fifth year of Rehoboam, a king whose name was 
Susakim came up against Jerusalem. He took all the spoil of 
the temple, and spoiled all Roboam had, and spoiled all the 
house of David, and removed them and took them to his own 

And he boasted, and said to the Jews, " The things I have 
taken from you as spoil, are goods that belonged to my fathers, 
of which your fathers spoiled them, when they came out of the 
land of Egypt, and which they brought unto this place ; and 
behold, I have taken them from you." 

And Rehoboam died in his denial [of God] ; and after him, his 
son Abius, reigned twenty years over the children of Israel. 
But he, too, walked in his father's ways, by reason of Makia 
his mother, the daughter of Absalom ; wherefore, did he many 
wicked things, and then died. 

After him arose Asaph his son, who reigned forty-one years 
over the children of Israel. He did what was right, just and 
good before God ; he brake down the idols that were in his 
day, and removed their images from the face of the land ; 
and he took his wicked mother Anna, and threw her down 
from the roof [of her house] and she died, because of her 

After that, came Eleazar a black king, who was king of 
Endena, to fight Asaph. But God delivered him into the hands 
of Asaph, who defeated him. 

Then Asaph died ; and his son Jehoshaphat reigned in his 
stead. He also did that which is just and good before God, and 
pleased God all his days, and then died. 


Then his son Aram reigned in his stead ; but he transgressed 
the commandments of God, and forsook His law, and sacrificed 
unto idols. 

Then Zambri rose up against him, made war against him, 
and he died in his denial [of God] . 

Then Yusia, his son, reigned [after him] ; but on account 
of his transgressions, God delivered him into the hands of his 
enemies, who put him to death. But when he was dead, his 
mother rose up against all the royal children and put them to 
death, and said, " I will take the kingdom from the house of 

Then Yusabet daughter of the king of Aram, arose, took 
Agragarina, and slew him before the eyes of the royal children 
that were left. But when she had put him to death, she feared, 
and hid herself and those with her, under a bed. And Gotholia 
was queen over the children of Israel, and died. 

Then the whole people of Israel said, " Whom shall we make 
king over us V 

Then when Yuda the high priest heard they spake thus, he 
gathered together the whole of the Jews within the Temple, 
and waited until the messengers of thousands and the 
messengers of hundreds came ; and then Yuda the high priest, 
said to them, " What do you require of me, and who is he 
whom ye will make king over the house of David ?" 

Then they said to him, " Thou hast authority." 

Then Yuda rose and took Barsia, and brought him before 
them, and said to them, " Does this one suit you for a king V 

The people were pleased with him ; so Yuda brought him 
into the house of God, and set him over the kingdom ; then 
all the people rejoiced, and the whole country was quiet in 
his days ; and he was king in Jerusalem forty years. 

But Barsia did not bear in mind all the good things Yuda 
the priest had told him; but he took him and put him to 
death. After this, enemies rose up against Barsia and put 
him also to death. 



After him his son Araazias reigned twenty-nine years, and 
put to death those who had killed his father; but he did not 
put to death their children, so as to fulfil the law of Moses, 
that says, " Ye shall not put to death children for the sins of 
their fathers." 

Then Amazias died, and after him Ozia reigned fifty-two 
years, and in his reign exercised justice and judgment, and 
right before God. Yet did he do one wicked act, and that 
was that — without due orders,* he offered sacrifices unto God, 
and oblations that did not become hira. So he died. 

After him Yonathan his son, reigned sixteen years. But 
during his reign, he did eyil before God, and angered his 
Creator, and forsook His commandment and His law ; and 
burnt incense to idols, and sacrificed unto them. For this reason 
did God deliver him to death, into the hands of Caran, king 
of Elmosal.f 

And when the king of Elmosal led him away [captive] , he 
[Yonathan] took all the vessels he found in the house of God, 
and sent them all to the great king of Elmosal ; and left nothing 
in the house of God. 

In the days of this king, did the children of Israel, go the 
first time into captivity. He removed them to his own country, 
and the land of Israel remained bare. 

Then the king of Elmosal, sent people to dwell in the 
land and to till it, instead of the children of Israel who had 
left it. 

But when those people came to dwell in that land, [wild] 
beasts rent them asunder and devoured them, and prevailed 
against them in all the borders of the land. 

Then they sent word to the king in their own tongue, and 
asked him to send them Urias the priest, to give them the 

♦ Or, being ordained. t »•«•. Mosul or AssTria. 


law, so that wild beasts should no longer come near them, and 
hurt them. 

When the king heard this he sent them Urias the priest, 
and commanded him to give them a law, for them to keep, so 
that the wild beasts hurt them not. 

Urias the priest came, and did as the king had commanded 
him, and he gave the people the law of the Jews ; it was in 
their hands, they recited it and ruled themselves after it. And 
those were the Samar; whom the king, of whom we have 
just spoken, had sent to till the land of Israel. 

Then Yunathan died, and after him reigned Akaz his son, 
who did well before God, and then died. 

After him reigned his son Hezkias, when he was twenty-five 
years old ; and he reigned twenty -two years ; and did good, 
and judgment, equity and justice ; and he pleased the Lord ; 
he kept His law and His commandments ; he brake down the 
idols, and destroyed their houses. 

But in the fourth year of his reign, came Sanakreb king of 
Assarium, and took away captive all that were left and sent 
them to Babylon. 

But Hezkias served the Lord God, and fulfilled His law, until 
he fell sick and became very weak, and was in great distress 
by reason of his sickness ; his heart suffered, and he said to 
himself, " Woe is me ! I shall die without a son to reign after 

And in his sickness he wept before Grod and said, " Woe is 
me, Lord ! behold, I die without a son ; and behold the 
promise Thou madest unto David, shall fail in me ; and the 
kingdom shall pass from the house of David.'' 

Then God looked upon his sorrow of heart, and upon his 
sickness, for his sickness was sore. And God had pity on him 
and gave him fifteen years over and above the rest of his days; 
and he recovered from his sickness. 

Then three years after he had recovered, and God had 
raised him from his sickness, he begat Manasseh. And he 



died, rejoicing greatly at having a son born unto him, to sit 
upon his throne. 


After him Manasseh his son reigned twelve years in 
Jerusalem. He did much evil, and made the people of 
Jerusalem worship idols.^^ 

Then when he had thus transgressed the law of God, Isaias 
the prophet came to him and rebuked him for the wickednesses 
he had wrought. 

Then Manasseh was angry with him, and commanded valiant 
and wicked men to take Isaias the prophet, and to saw him 
asunder with a saw of wood,* from his head down to his feet, 
among the trees of the wilderness ; and then to cast him to 
the beasts [of the field] to devour him. And they did so to 

Isaias was then one hundred and twenty years old. His 
raiment was of shaggy goat^s hair upon his body; and he 
fasted regularly every second day [of the week] all the days of 
his life. 

Then Manasseh died ; and after him reigned his son Amots, 
who did evil before God ; for he offered sons and daughters 
in sacrifice unto idols. 

Then Amots died; and after him reigned Yusias his son. 
He was twenty years old when he [began] to reign, and 
continued twenty-two years in his kingdom in the city of 
Jerusalem. He did justice and right before God; and kept 
the Passover of the Lord, such as the children of Israel never 
were able to keep, except the one Moses kept for them in the 
wilderness. This king purified Jerusalem of all wickedness. 

But Pharhon the lame, king of Egypt, killed Yusias in 

* i.e., a saw used in sawing or felling trees. 


Then after him Akaz reigned three months. But Pharhon 
bound Akaz in chains and sent him into the land of Egypt ; 
and he died in that place. 

After his death Yuakem his brother reigned fourteen years ; 
but in the third year of his reign, Nabukadanatsor came to the 
city of Jerusalem, and God delivered Yuakem into his hands ; 
and Yuakem was under his orders, bowed unto him, and paid 
him tribute ; he then sickened and died. 

After him reigned his brother Yekonias three months ; then 
came Nabukadanatsor who took captive Yekonias and all his 
army, and sent them to Babylon. 

On the way thither, Daniel's mother gave him birth. Anania, 
Azaria, and Misael, sons of Yekonias, were also bom on the first 
transportation of Yuakem. 

Then Yekonias died, and after him Zedekias reigned twelve 
years. This was the end of kings that reigned over the 
children of Israel, and all Judah; after them no king was 
left to them. 

And at the end of the fourteenth year of Zedekias, Nabuka- 
danatsor came and transported all the people of Jerusalem, as 
far as the west, and as far as the river Euphrates, and as far as 
the great river. He laid waste Tyre, and burnt Hiram king of 
Tyre with fire, who had reigned five hundred years. 

Then after this Nabukadanatsor went into Egypt, and put to 
death Pharhon ; destroyed his army, and laid waste the land 
of Egypt ; and then took the city of Jerusalem. And God 
delivered Zedekias into his hands, whom he took, and brought 
out before idols, and set him before the people, and slew his 
children before him, without pity. He then put out his eyes, 
bound his hands with chains and his feet with fetters; and sent 
him to Babylon, because of his folly, and of the evil he had 
done to Irmias* the prophet, by casting him into springs of 
water in a marsh." 

• Jeremiah. 



After this Nabuzaradan captain of the king's array, destroyed 
the walls of Jerusalem, burnt the House of God with fire ; and 
did all manner of evil to Jerusalem. 

But Simeon the priest, found favour and grace with the 
captain of the king's army, and requested him to give him the 
house* of records ; and he gave him a command accordingly. 

Then Simeon the priest came in and gathered together the 
ashes of the books, and laid them in a pot in a vault, and he 
took a censer of brass, and put fire therein, and threw pure 
incense upon it, and hung it in the vault over the place in 
which the ashes of the books lay. 

But [Nebuzaradan] laid waste Jerusalem, like a wilderness. 

And Jeremiah the prophet sat weeping and mourning over 
Jerusalem twenty years, after which this prophet Jeremiah 
went into the land of Kgypt, and died there. 

But the writers and the interpreters destroyed the writings, 
and the Hebrews changed the writings; and the Syrians and 
the Greeks rejected many sections of those writings. So that 
the children of the people could not ascertain [their kindred], 
neither could men or women hear who were their fathers or 
their mothers, except very few of them ; 

And this was because of the laying waste of Jerusalem ; so 
that until this day, nothing certain is found among the 
writings, except the chief writings alone, which writings had 
been translated before the ruin of Jerusalem. 

Then again since some of the writings were altered, people 
could not ascertain how they were married, and could not 
know who were their wives or daughters ; they did not know 
their names or their kindred ; nor the order of generations ; 
neither did they know that of the priesthood. 

And Jechonias remained twienty-seven years bound in prison 
at Babylon. After that he was released by Marzuk king of 
Babylon, who gave him to wife, a woman called Dalilah daughter 

* Or, repository, ark, chest. 


of Eliakim, by whom he had Salathiel in Babylon. But 
Jechonias, Salathiel's father, died at Babylon. 

Then Salathiel took to wife Hadast, daughter of Elkanah ; 
and had by her Zerubbabel. And Zerubbabel married a 
woman whose name was Malka, daughter of Ezra the scribe ; 
but he had no child by her in Babylon. 

Then in the days of Zerubbabel, who was elder among 
the children of Israel, a Persian king, called Cyrus, who 
reigned over Babylon, took to wife a woman called Meshar, 
sister of Zerubbabel, elder among the children of Israel ; and 
he made her queen after the manner of the queens of Persia. 
And when she became queen, she found favour with the king, 
and asked him to show mercy to the children of Israel, and 
to send them back to the city of Jerusalem. 


But Cyrus loved much Meshar, sister of Zerubbabel, [even] 
as his own soul. 

So he gave an urgent order that they should go about the 
whole land of the Chaldaeans, and gather together the children 
of Israel into Babylon, the house of the kingdom ; and they 
gathered them according to the king's order. 

Then Cyrus said to Zerubbabel, his wife's brother, " Take 
thy people and go to thy city Jerusalem ; and rebuild it as it 
was at first. 

Then when dutiful Cyrus had given this order concerning 
the return of the children of Israel to Jerusalem, in the land of 
the sanctuary ; 

God appeared unto him in a vision during sleep, and said 
unto him, "Because thou hast done this, they shall call thee 
Cyrus the Messiahnic; and this name, Messiahnic, shall be 
given thee, because thou hast sent back strangers to their own 


city ; and because thou hast given commandment concerning 
the rebuilding of Jerusalem." 

Then the children of Israel returned from the captivity of 
Babylon, Zerubbabel was elder over them; and Josiah, son 
of Zadok, of the sons of Aaron, was high priest over them ; as 
the angel of God spake to the prophet Zachariah saying, 
''Those two sons that stand before the Lord of the whole 
earth shall minister unto them, as becomes their service." 

Cyrus had assumed the kingdom two years, when the 
captivity returned from Babylon ; and at the end of that year, 
the five thousand years [spoken of j to Adam were fulfilled. 

But when the children of Israel returned from Babylon they 
had not the law, neither was there a book in their hands ; 
.inasmuch as the voices of the prophets had departed from 
among them. 

So, when they came to Jerusalem and were settled in it, 
Ezra the scribe came to the vault in which were the ashes of 
the books, which Simeon the priest, had gathered together. 

And Ezra found the censer that was full of fire, hanging 
with [smoke of] incense rising from it on high. 

Then Ezra prayed to God, wept abundantly, and spread his 
hand towards the ashes of the books of the law and of the 
prophets, and all of them three times.* 

Then came the Spirit of God upon him, and the [same] 
Spirit spake through him that had spoken through the 
prophets. And he wrote the law and the prophets, and 
made them new a second time. 

And the fire which he found in the censer, is the divine fire 
that was all the time in the House of God. 

Then Zerubbabel settled in Jerusalem as king over the 
children of Israel, and Josiah son of Zadok as high priest, with 
Ezra the scribe of the law and the prophets also, as chief over 
the children of Israel. 

* Eutych., Nazam al-j., p 226. 


And the children of Israel kept a solemn Passover unto the 
Lord, when they returned from their captivity at Babylon. 

These were the three great, full and solemn feasts of the 
Passover, which the children of Israel kept during their 
existence. The first Passover was in Egypt, in the days of 
Moses ; the second Passover was in the days of king Josiah ; 
and the third Passover was when they returned from their 
captivity in Babylon. 


From the first transportation to Babylon, when they carried 
away Daniel's mother, and she brought him forth, unto the 
second year of Cyrus the Persian, are seventy years, during 
which the children of Israel were captive, according to the 
prophecy of holy* Jeremiah the prophet. 

And the children of Israel began to build the House of God, 
in the days of Zerubbabel, of Josiah the son of Zadok, and of 
Ezra the scribe. And they were forty-six years building it, 
until it was finished, as it is written in the holy Gospel — that 
they were forty-six years building it. 

Moreover, scribes arranged tables of genealogy, and recorded 
the names of the men ; but they could not record the names of 
the women because they knew them not, except very few. 

But, my brethren, I have watched much, and I have 
searched long in the books of the Greeks and of the ancient 
Hebrews, and I have found the name of the women written in 

For I found that when the children of Israel came from 
Babylon, that Zerubbabel begat Abiud of Maukabf the daughter 
of Ezra the scribe ; and that Abiud took to wife Tsamita the 
daughter of Zadok the high priest, and she bare Eliakim. 

♦ Or, innoceut. t Called Mulka at p. 197. 


And Eliakim married Hasbia, the daughter of Aram, and 
brought forth Azar. And Azar begat Zadok of Lebaida. 
And Zadok took to wife Kalem, the daughter of Waikam, who 
gave birth to Akim. 

And Akim married Asbaidi, who gave birth to Eliud. And 
Eliud married Awad, the daughter of Gasulius, who gave birth 
to Azar. 

And Azar married Hayat, daughter of Walha, who brought 
forth Mattan ; and Mattan married Sabartyal the daughter of 
Phulius, who brought forth twins, namely, Jacob and Joachim. 

And Jacob married Gadat, the daughter of Eleazar, who 
gave birth to Joseph the betrothed of Mary. And Joachim, 
the brother of Jacob, married Hannah the daughter of Makah ; 
and she brought forth the pure Virgin Mary ; and of her was 
born Christ. 

The former scribes, however, could not find a good lineage 
for the Virgin and her father, or kindred; wherefore did the 
Jews crucify Christ, and taunt Him, and mock Him, and say to 
Him, " Show us the fathers of Mary the Virgin and her people, 
and what is her genealogy.'* Therefore did they blaspheme 
her and Christ. 

But henceforth shall the mouth of those unbelieving Jews be 
closed ; and they shall know that Mary is of the seed of David 
the king, and of that of the patriarch Abraham. 

Moreover, the unbelieving Jews had no registers to guide 
them aright, neither did they know, how the lines of kindred 
ran at first, inasmuch as the law and the prophets were three 
times burnt [out] from them. 

The first time in the days of Antiochus, who burnt down the 
whole House [of God] ; The second time they burnt those 
books in the days of Qablar the great king of Mosul ; And the 
third time* they burnt the books was at the transportation by 
king Nabukadanatsor when Abumirdan came and burnt the 

* Eatychus attributes the last destruction of all Jewish chronicles, to Herod the 
Great. Nazam al-j., p. 309. 


House of God, and destroyed the walls of Jerusalem; when 
Simeon the priest asked of him the store of books, and he gave 
them to him. 


But we will make known to you all the genealogies in detail. 
Judah begat Pharez, and Pharez married Barayah, the daughter 
of Levi, and begat Esrom. 

And Esrom married Kanita, the daughter of Zebulun, and he 
begat Aram. And Aram married Phozib the daughter of 
Judah ; and he begat Aminadab. 

And Aminadab married Thehara, the daughter of Esrom, and 
he begat Naasson. And Naasson married Simar, the daughter 
of Yuhanas, and he begat Salmon; and Salmon married 
Saphila, the daughter of Aminadab, by whom he had Booz. 

And Booz married Ruth the Moabitess, of the seed of Mot, 
and begat Obed; and Obed married Abalit, the daughter of 
Sonas, and begat Jesse. Jesse married Habliar, the daughter 
of Abrias, and begat David the king. 

And king David took to wife Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, 
and begat Solomon. And Solomon married Nan, the same as 
Makiya, the daughter of Dan king of Ammon, of the seed of 
Lot, and begat Rehoboam. 

And Rehoboam married Makin, the daughter of Bilos, 
and begat Abia. And Abia married Malkit, the daughter of 
Absalom, and begat Asaph. 

And Asaph married Nirona, the daughter of Sala, and begat 

And Joshaphat married Malkiya, the daughter of Abiud, and 
begat Joram. And Joram married Phitalia, the daughter of 
Naphrim, and begat Osias; and Osias married Sophia, the 
daughter of Habralias, and begat Jotham. 

And Jotham married Hadast, the daughter of Elkanah, and 


begat Ahaz. And Ahaz married Bikaz^ the daughter of 
Zachariah, and begat Hezekiah ; and Hezekiah married 
Basyar, the daughter of Bartenas, and begat Manasseh ; 

And Manasseh married Amasisan, and begat Amos ; and 
Amos married Nadyas, and begat Josias. And Josias married 
Dalilah, the daughter of Kermias, and begat Joachim. 

And Joachim married Phurdia, the daughter of Phulek, 
and begat Jechonias and his brother during the captivity of 

And Marsas who reigned over Babylon, released Jechonias 
from prison, and gave him to wife, a woman whose name was 
Dalilah, the daughter of Eliakim, by whom he had Salathiel. 

But Jechonias died at Babylon ; where Salathiel continued 
forty-nine years after him, and married Hadast, the daughter 
of Elkauah, and begat Zerubbabel. And Zerubbabel married 
Maukab, the daughter of Esdras the scribe, and had by her 

And Abiud married Hadast, the daughter of Zadok the high 
priest, and begat Eliakim. And Eliakim married Kwebedai, 
the daughter of Aram, and begat Azar. 

And Azar married Salambeta, the daughter of Zadok. And 
Zadok married Kalim, the daughter of Waikan, and begat 
Akim. And Akim married Zasbaidi, and begat Eliud. 

And Eliud married Awad, the daughter of Gasalias, and 
begat Eleazar. And Bleazar married Hayat, the daughter of 
Thalka, and begat Matthan. And Matthan married Sabartia, 
the daughter of Phunius, and had by her twins, namely, Jacob 
and Joachim. 

And Jacob married Gadat, the daughter of Eleazar, and 
begat Joseph the betrothed [husband] of Mary. 

But Joachim married Hannah, the daughter of Makah, and 
begat the pure Mary ; Here ends the genealogy of pure 



And here, O my brother, behold, I have settled for thee 
that which is true, and I have revealed unto thee the genealpgy, 
and laid for thee the firm foundation, which not one of the 
writers and of the wise men, could make known. 

But, O my brother, give me thy heart and make it clean, 
that I may tell thee what things remain, and how the reckoning 
of generations come all round to reach unto and to stand firm 
by the birth of Christ. 

But after the birth of Christ there remained no more 
trustworthy reckoning [of kindred] to the Jews. For Christ 
was the end of the generations ; He took it and gave it 
to us. 

But let me tell thee, O my brother, that the five thousand 
years from [the creation of] Adam, did not end before 
the days of Cyrus, king of Persia. Then from Cyrus to the 
sufferings of our Saviour Jesus Christ, even as the faithful 
Daniel prophesied, saying, " After seven weeks Christ shall 
come, and shall be put to death." 

Now seven weeks are four hundred and ninety years ; for a 
great week is of seventy years. But in that the prophet said, 
"After seven years," he pointed to the ten years [that 
remained] ; for he did not say, " Christ shall come at the end 
of the seven weeks,'^ but he said, " After seven weeks [He 
shall come] and be put to death." 

But the meaning here of '' after," is — those ten years, that 
make up the five hundred years. And that is the fulfilment of 
the promise that God made to Adam, that He would save him 
at the end [of that time] .^^ 

Henceforth are the mouths of the Jews struck dumb, and to 
them belongs shame, because they blaspheme and say that 
Christ is not yet come. 

But while they say so, they, of necessity, believe the first 


statement [of the prophets] to be true and the last to be a lie. 
If they say " Christ came/^ believing, as they do, the prophecy 
of the prophet Daniel, they now see that the prophecy of 
Daniel is fulfilled, and that the House of God is laid waste 
[and taken] from them ; that the priesthood is abolished, and 
that the seven weeks were fulfilled, and that Christ came, and 
was put to death ; and that the Holy City was laid waste by 
king Vespasian and his son Titus. 

" But let me also tell thee, my brother, that in the thirty- 
second year of the reign of Augustus Caesar, Christ was bom 
in Bethlehem of Judah, as it is written in the Gospel. And, 
behold, it is made plain to us, that Christ came when the 
prophecy was fulfilled. 

As Micah the prophet said, " But thou, O Bethlehem, [in 
the] land of Judah, thou art not lower than the kings of Judah ; 
for from thee shall come a king, that shall feed my people 

Let the Jews now feel ashamed of themselves ; for if they 
make Daniel a liar, they cannot again make the prophet Micah 
a liar; yet if they will make them liars still, behold, Christ 
was bom in Bethlehem [in] the land of Judah. 

And when He was born at Bethlehem [in] the land of 
Judah, a star in the East made it known, and was seen by 
Magi. That star shone in heaven, amid all the other stars ; 
it flashed and was like the face of a woman, a young virgin, 
sitting among the stars, flashing, as it were carrying a little 
child of a beautiful countenance. 

From the beauty of His looks, both heaven and earth shone, 
and were filled with His beauty and light above and below; 
and that child was on the virgin woman's arms ; and there was 
a cloud of light around the child's head, like a crown. 

But it was a custom of the Chaldaeans to observe the stars 
of heaven ; to take counsel from them ; and they were num- 
bered by them. 

So when they saw the star of the figure we have just 


mentioned, they were greatly troubled, and said among them- 
selves, '* Surely the king of the Helonseans is putting himself 
in battle array against us ! " 

And they inquired among soothsayers and philosophers, 
until they ascertained the fact and discovered that the king of 
the children of Israel was born. 

As to this matter of the stars, the ChaldaBans used to work 
it out, and to take counsel from the power* of the stars ; so 
that they knew every event that should be, ere it happened. 
Likewise the captains of large ships, wh^n they went on a 
voyage upon the seas, [knew beforehand] the signs of winds, 
of whirlwind, of gloom, and of thick darkness. 

Thus the Magi when they read in their books, knew from 
them, that Christ should be born in the land of Judah. 

So they went upon a high mountain in the east, while 
coming westward ; and they took with them the presents they 
had prepared ere they set off on their journey ; that is, gold, 
frankincense and myrrh — that had been with Adam in the Cave 
of Treasures. Gold, namely as unto a king ; frankincense, as 
unto God; and myrrh, as for His death. 


But when Hor, king of Persia, heard who it was they called 
King of kings, he prepared his chariot and mounted it. 
Basantar also, king of Saba, came out ; and Karsundas, king 
of the East, got himself ready and came out also. 

They were all in great tribulation, and also all other kings 
in the borders of the West trembled with them, and every 
country in the East was in great alarm at the sight of that 

* i.e.y inflaence. 


Then the Magi while on their journey said, " This star has 
not risen but for some great event/' And they went on their 
way until they came to Jerusalem.^''' 

But when Herod heard of it, he was troubled, and called the 
Magi to him, and communed with them ; and they rehearsed 
unto him the [whole] thing. 

Then he and all his hosts trembled ; and he said to the 
Magi, " Go ye, and inquire diligently concerning this Child ; 
and when ye have found Him, come and tell me, that I also 
may go and worship Him. 

Then the Magi went forthwith to Bethlehem, and found 
Christ, and offered Him their gifts. But they did not return 
to Herod ; they went back to their own country. 

But after they were gone, Herod was wroth, and com- 
manded all children of two years and under, to be put to 

Then an angel of the Lord appeared unto Joseph, and said 
to him, " Arise, and take the Child and His mother, and go to 
the land of Egypt j and abide there until I tell thee." And 
Joseph weut into the land of Egypt. 

Then Herod began to slay all children, until he had not left 
one. And he died of an evil death. 

After his death an angel of the Lord appeared unto Joseph 
in the land of Egypt. And Joseph came up out of Egypt, 
and dwelt at Nazareth, he, the child, and Mary His mother. 

And they abode at Jerusalem until Christ was thirty years of 
age, and was baptized by John. 

This John lived all his days in the wilderness, and his food 
was locusts and wild honey. 

And in the nineteenth year of Tiberius, our Lord Christ was 
crucified. He died in the body, and was buried, and rose 
again from among the dead on the third day ; as it is written. 

And He went down into hell, and saved Adam and Eve, and 
all their righteous seed, according to His first and firm promise. 


And thus He fulfilled all tliat the prophets had prophesied 
concerning Him. 

He then went up into heaven; whence He will come 
again with His holy angels, to judge the quick and dead. 

Unto Him be glory, and thanksgiving, and honour, and 
power and worship for ever. Amen. 





1 " He rooted up from elsewhere, 
trees no larger than the horns (antennae) 
of locusts, and planted the garden full 
of them," {Bereshith Rabhah, sect. fol. 
18, ed. Frkf.; and Yalkut Ruheni^ foi- 
ls, ed. Armst.) E. Abarhanel, how- 
ever, denies that ; and says that God 
did not take trees from elsewhere to 
plant them there j but the meaning is, 
that the garden and the trees thereof, 
were a plant of His own planting, to 
take pleasure therein — the perfection of 
His creation. ( Comm. in Pent, fol. 22. ) 
Yalkut Rubeni ( f ol. 1 3, ed. Amst. ), quotes 
from the Bk. Zoar, that as God made 
two Paradises, one on earth for Adam, 
and one above for the righteous who 
are to be there girt with light, so also 
has He made two Gehennas ; one under 
the earth, and one above it. The one 
below, is for all who do not believe in 
God, and have not entered into cove- 
nant with Him. But the Gehenna 
above is for all Israelites who have 
broken the commandments, and care 
not to repent. 

2 The Angel of the Face revealed 
unto Moses the creation of the world, 
and how on the third day God created 
the waters, dry lands, woods, fruit trees, 
and the Garden of Eden, for delight. 
(^Kufale, p. 7 ; and K. Maim., SanJied. X) 

3 R. Abarbanel renders ]"*731p7D 
(Targum Onk., Gen. iii, 8), by tlHlD 
y"lS3 the utmost limit of the earth 
created at the beginning (Comm. in 
Pent, fol. 22). It was planted on 

a mountain [the Holy Mountain] in 
the north ; eastward ; whence flowed 
the rivers down into the world. (^Sode 
Raza, in Talk. Rubeni, fol. 13.) 

4 S. Ephrem had a different idea of 
Paradise. In his first sermon on this 
subject (vol. iii, p. 564), he compares 
Paradise to the orbit of the moon, that 
embraces within itself both the earth 
and the seas. (S. Chrys., Uom. xiii, in 

6 Then the Lord God [the Word of 
the Lord, Ta/rg. Hier} said to the 
ministering angels : " Behold, Adam is 
alone in the earth as I am alone in the 
high heavens, and men shall come 
from him who shall know good from 
evil. Had he kept My commandment 
he would have lived and continued 
[stood] like the Tree of Life, for ever. 
But now since he has transgressed, let 
us decree to drive him out of Eden ere 
he take of the Tree of Life. And God 
drove Adam from the Garden of Eden, 
and he' went and dwelt on Mount 
Moriah, to till the ground from which 
he had been taken. (Targ. Jonathan, 
in Gen. iii.) 

The Jews, says S. Basil (Horn, in 
Hewaemeron, ix, c. 6), being reduced 
to great straits, iroWci, (paalv, Icrri 
rd TrpderwTra Trpoc ovg 6 XoyoQ ykyove 
Tov Gfow, say there were many persons 
to whom God addressed the words, 
" Let us make man ;" namely to the 
angels irapiarixKnv avrt^, who waited 
on Him, 'lov^aiicov to irXdafia, but it is 




a Jewish fiction and fabulous— for is 
the image of God and of angels one 
and the same ? 

In the Coran, snr. vi, 14, Mahomet 
inveighs against al-mushrikin, those 
who gave companions to God, and 
worshipped them, in the shape of angels' 
together with Him. And in sur. xxxvii, 
163, and elsewhere, he further blames 
them — and the former inhabitants of 
Mecca in particular — for believing that 
angels were of the female sex, and 
daughters of God. " Have we created 
angels females," says he, " and do we 
prefer daughters to sons ?" etc. 

6 Adam and his wife were seven 
years in the Garden of Eden, tilling and 
keeping it, " and we," says the Angel of 
the Face, " gave him work and taught 
him everything needful [lit. visible] for 
husbandry ; and he laboured at it, and 
gathered the fruit thereof, and laid it 
in store for himself and his wife." 
(K'nfale,i>. 13.) 

7 The air of Paradise is full of sweet 
and fragrant smells ; Adam drew breath 
from it, and grew thereby. (S. Ephrem, 
8erm. X, on Par., vol. iii, p. 595.) 

8 Adam the first man, king of all 
that is on the earth, was created on the 
Friday of the first week in Nisan, the 
first month of the first year of the world 
(Bar. Hebraeus, Syr., Dyn. i, p. 3). After 
having created everything, God said to 
His angels : " Let us create man after 
our own image and similitude, knowing 
good and evil, and with the power of 
doing either." Then there appeared an 
open right hand, with particles of the 
four elements in it ; into which God 
breathed a living soul, whence Adam 
came into existence. (Abulpharaj. 
Arab. Hist. Dyn., p. 5.) 

God created Adam in the last hour of 
the first Friday. He created him of the 
surface of the earth, taking a handful of 
earth of all colours, He mixed it up with 
divers waters («7rti r»Jc wppaQ y^t 

<pvpa9ei<Ttis iytyovti Joseph. Ant. Jvd., 
lib. i, c. i, p. 2); red earth being virgin 
soil ; and having formed him. He breathed 
a breath into him, and he became a living 
and sensible creature, after having been 
a senseless vessel of clay. ( Jelal, and 
Jahias on Coran, sur. ii, 39.) At sur. 
Ixxvi, 1, on the words hal ata 'ola 
'I insHni, Jelal says (according to 
Maracci, p. 769), that Adam had been 
forty years a form of clay no one ever 
mentioned, for there was nothing re- 
markable or to be noticed (remembered) 
— in it, until God breathed into him the 
breath of life.— Truly such writers, and 
their readers, are easily pleased ; for if, 
Jelal says, Adam was created on the 
Friday of the creation, where had he 
been, as a figure of clay, during those 
forty years ? 

Pyrrhon in his history, says indeed, 
that Adam came into the Garden of 
Paradise on the fortieth day [of his 
creation] dW'oi;*; olSa irov SierpiPs 
irpoTtgov 6 'Addfi, t^w rov Trapadtiffov 
TtaffapaKovra Siayuv t'luipag, but I 
don't know, says M. Glycas, where 
Adam could have been spending forty 
days outside Paradise. (Annal. i, p. 
156.) This legend was probably derived 
from the XtiTTq riveaiQ, or Ethiopic 
Kufale, where we read in ch. iii, p. 12, 
" When Adam had passed forty days in 
the land in which he was created, we, 
the Angel of the Face, brought him 
into the Garden of Eden ; and Eve his 
wife, after eighty days. Wherefore it 
is written in the tables of heaven, that 
a woman continues forty days until 
cleansed, for the birth for a man-child, 
and eighty days for that of a female. 

Philo (QucBst. XXV, Annen. in Gen.) 
alludes to this, when he says that 
" man's " formation being more perfect 
than woman's , gisu hidetsav jamanagi, 
only required half the time, that is forty 
days ; but woman's nature being less 
perfect, took grgnagi avwts twice as 





many days — eighty." [This may have 
been clear to Philo, but to no one else.] 

Targ. Jonathan in Gen. ii. says 
that God took dnst fromSC7"Tp!I3 IVZ 
the sanctnary and from the four winds 
[quarters] of the world, mixed it up 
with waters from the whole world, and 
made man TlTlT D^riB? pl21D brown, 
black and white — and He " breathed into 
him a living soul, to light up his eyes, 
and to quicken his ears to hearken." 

Ebn-Ali adds that while Adam was 
thus a figure of clay — either forty nights 
or forty years [riadapaKOffTy r'lfispa 
Geo. Syncell. from XfTm) rivtaic, or 
KufaW] Satan came and kicked it ; and 
as it gave a sound, he said, "This is 
not created, but to rule and govern." 
And God said to His angels, " When I 
have animated it, ye shall fall down and 
worship him." They did so, but Satan 
would not, etc. (Maracci, p. 22). Man 
was as high as a palm-tree, and the hair 
of his head was long and thick, etc. 
(Jahias, p. 270.) 

But Masudi (Maruj ez-zahaibi, p. 
50, sq.) improves upon this account, and 
says, that God having finished the earth, 
peopled it with [jins] genii or demons, 
one of which was Eblis — before He 
created Adam. They began to fight 
among themselves, and were driven to 
distant islands ; while Eblis was made 
regent of the sky [the heaven of the 
world], but harboured pride in his 
breast, and refused to worship Adam 
when created. Then God sent Gabriel 
and Michael, and after them the Angel 
of Death, who took a handful of clay of 
red, black and white colours; whence 
men are of different complexions. The 
first man was called Adam [from adim, 
surface] , and left forty years, some say 
one hundred and twenty years, a figure 
of clay. The angels passed by and 
gtared at it, and Eblis himself was 
astonished, and gave it a kick that 
made it resound. Afterwards, when 

commanded to worship Adam, he re- 
fused, saying to God, " I am Thy vicar 
on earth, created of fire, with wings and 
a glory round my head — but this one 
is of clay." Then God cursed Eblis, 
hurled him down from heaven, but gave 
him respite, until a fixed time — ^the day 
of the resurrection, etc. 

R. Meir says God made the first man 
of dust gathered from the whole world ; 
and R. Oshaya says his body was made 
of dust from Babel (or Babylon), his 
head from the land of Israel, and his 
other members from different lands. 
But^iJochananBar Jlanina^ajs that 
there being twelve hours in the day : 
At hour one, God gathered the dust ; at 
two, He formed the mass ; at three, He 
spread out his members ; at four, He put 
breath into him ; at five. He set him up 
on his feet; at six, he called the names 
[of the beasts] ; at seven, He joined him 
to Eve ; at eight, they begat twins ; at 
nine, they were ordered not to take food 
from the tree ; at ten, they trans- 
gressed ; at eleven, they were judged ; 
and at twelve, they were driven from 
Paradise. (Talmud Bab. Sanhedrin, p. 
75, 76, ed. W.) The same story is also 
told in P. Avoth. of R. Nathan, fol. 2. 
Philastrius (Cotel., Pat. op., vol. i, p. 
642) speaks of heretics, who taught 
that Adam was created blind. Tv<p\bc 
KrO^tTai, and dvOpuwoi TV<p\oi. (S. 
Clem., Homil. iii,39 and 24.) See also 
Simon Magus and S. Peter argning 
on this at Rome — aiir'iKa yovv 6 Ka- 
Q'bfioioiaiv avrov (jrov Qtov') yeyovue 
'Adafj, Kai TvipXbg KrU^erai k. t. K. — 
to which S. Peter replies : ti rv(p\bc 
inXdaOri 6 'ASd/x, wf XLyiig, if Adam 
was formed blind as thou sayest, how 
could God have commanded him, show- 
ing him the tree of good and evil, if 
it had not been plain to him ? . etc. 
(Credrenns, Hist. Comp., vol. i, p. 364.) 

9 When God drove Adam from 
Paradise, He in His mercy made Adam 




dwell in a lower land (valley or plain) 
away from it. (S. Ephr., vol. iii, Serm. 
I, on Par., p. 554.) 

10 Qnando expulsi sant de paradiso 
fecerunt sibi tabernaculam, et fuerunt 
Tii dies lagentes et lamentantes in magna 
tristitia, etc (Vita, Ada et Evas, p. 37 » 
ed. Meyer.) 

1 1 God drove Adam and Eve from the 
Garden of Eden abroad in the earth, at 
the ninth hour of the same Friday on 
which they had been created at the first 
honr. (Abulphar. Byn. i, p. 6; Geo. 
Syncellns, Chron. p. 5.) 

S. Chrysostom (in S. Matt.) says, Ty 
sicrjf ri/Mspg, TiJQ irpMri]e i^Softdlog, 
rowr'eoTt Ty aliry rifiipf rrJQ irXacrtwf 
avTov,\iyt^ Tov'ASdfi fK^XijOrivai tov 
vapaStiaov Kai Tifv Evav. If driven 
from Paradise at the ^sixth hoa» on 
the Friday, how could they have been 
created at the eleventh hour on that day, 
according to the Goran ? . 

12 According to the Kufale Adam and 
Eve left the Garden of Eden exactly 
seven years, two months, and seventeen 
days, after having been brought into it 
from the land of Elda, where they had 
been created, and to which they now 
returned. On this day [the 10th of 
May, Syncel.] Adam offered a sweet 
smelling sacrifice of incense and other 
spices, at sun-rise ; and on this day were 
all creatures driven from the garden, 
and their speech taken from them. For 
mitil_thB day Adaj m was driven fr om 
the garden, all animals, birds, and 
reptiles, had one speech of their own. 
(Kufale, p. 14, 15.) Geo. Syncellus adds 
to this from the XtTrriy Plvefftc (p. 15, ed. 
Dind.) " that all animals ofiofoiva tJvai 
— Tolc irpuTO'TrXdaroiQ spake the same 
language as Adam and Eve before their 
fall (so also Joseph. Ant. Jud., lib. i, c. i, 
4) ; for the serpent spake to Eve with a 
human voice " — a statement Syncellus 
did not believe ; albeit he says, " we do 
not doubt the serpent was four footed 

before the fall, and afterwards, became 
creeping. " 

Speaking of the Xtirri) VevifftQ, the 
probable Greek original of the Ethiopic 
Kufale, of Jewish authorship, and 
possibly alluding to this present work 
of Christian origin, Geo. Syncellus says, 
" he was driven to quote from them 
against his will, on account of the 
naming of the beasts by Adam, of the 
fall, etc., ti Kai /xi) Kupia elvai SoksI 
although such particulars do not seem 
to be authentic " (p. 7). 

13 And the King of Light commanded 
me ^bel Zivo [who with Anush and 
Shetel, attended Adam] saying, " Go to 
the world of darkness which is full of 
evil, and bring out every thing to light 
— let the earth be formed, and bring 
forth food and every living thing, male 
and female. Let man and woman be, 
and call them Adam and Eve ; and let 
all things, even the Angels of Fire, 
serve him. With the aid of Fetahil 
[Demiurgus] the world will come to 
light." Adam and Eve were then created, 
and a soul given them, in the garden. 
" Go then, ^bel Zivo [Brilliant Ruler] 
and cause Adam's heart to shine, and 
establish him so that his mind shine ; 
converse with him, thou and the two 
angels that are to go about with him in 
the world. And teach him and Eve 
and their children, to eschew evil and 
Satan, and to practise righteousness 
in the earth," etc. (Codem NasarcBTis 
i, p. 62, 64, 66.) 

Adam was clothed in the brightness 
of life, and three pure Genii — ^bel, 
Anush and Shetel were given him for 
companions, etc., i, p. 193; ii, p. 120, etc. 
[See a long quotation from 'Emeq ham- 
meUch on this subject, in Eisenmenger's 
Entdecktes Judenthum, vol. i, p. 459.] 

14 " The world was created by God 
the Father through His only Begotten 
Son," says Syncellns (p. 1,2, ed. D.), 
" on the first of Nisan, or 25th of March, 





or 29th of Phamenoth. On the same 
day the angel Gabriel appeared to the 
B. Virgin Mary, and on that day also 
did Christ rise from the dead, roS 
t0'X'5 'iTovs airh KTiaiiDZ Kocfiov, being 
5534 years from the creation of the 
world ; a matter I will diligently try to 
prove " (the discrepancy between 5600 
and 5534 is explained further on). 
The general opinion among Jews has 
always been that this world will last 
7000 years. Thus in Avoda Zara, p. 1 7, 
we read, " 6000 years will be to the 
world — 2000 years 1 mil of emptiness ; 
2000 years miJl of the law; 2000 
years, the days of the Messiah in our 
manifold afflictions." These, adds the 
commentary, are determined according 
to the days of the week, and the last 
1000 years are the Sabbath. This 
account of the first 2000 years does not 
agree with what is said elsewhere, that 
" the law was given before the creation, 
and that Adam and the Patriarchs had 

Tivog Si xaptv rrjv l^' rinipav ivXoyijffe 
6 ©eoc; " Why then did God hallow the 
seventh day ?" asks Cedrenus. " Because 
whereas every other day had within 
itself the blessing resting on the works 
done therein [that were very good] the 
seventh day had no such distinction. 
God, therefore, hallowed it as a day 
of rest, Kal wf rvirog rrjs t^tofiriQ 
XiKiotTTipiSog, and as a figure of the 
seventh thousandth of years [or millen- 
nium] as told by Josephus, and in the 
XivTij rkvtaig (Eth. Kufale) qv Kai 
ViwakwQ tlvai ^aai tiviq aTroKaXvxpiv, 
which some say is the Revelation of 
Moses." (Cedrenus, Eist. Compend., 
p. 9, ed. D.) 

15 And the Lord called me [^bel 
Zivo], and paid, " Go, tell Adam, with 
a clear voice, of the most high King 
of Light ; of the kings of praise, who 
stand praising Him ; of the creatures of 
light, that live for ever. Teach them to 

pray and to give thanks, to stand pray- 
ing to the King of Light, Lord of all 
creatures, three times a day and twice in 
the night, etc. (Codex Nasar, i, p. 68.) 

Targum Onkelos (Gen. ii. 7), says of 
"the living soul," that it became (or 
was) in man sbbtStt m"l7 a speaking 
spirit — irpo^opiKos Xoyoc [which no 
" missing link " possesses]. 

16 After God had given His com- 
mandment to Adam and Ere, not to 
touch the tree, Satan said within him- 
self, I shall not be able to make Adam 
fall, but I can make Eve do so. He 
then drew near to her, and while 
whispering in her ears, he shook the 
tree with his hands and feet, until the 
fruit thereof fell to the ground ; so that 
Eve should take of it without touching 
even the root of the tree. (Pirke Avoth 
of R. Nathan, fol. 2.) 

Quoniam in hora gloriae ejus intravit 
serpens, et invenit Evam solam, et 
decepit Evam. {Protoev. Jacohi, c. xiii, 
ed. Thilo.) 

And S. Ephrem (in Gen , vol. i, p. 
31), says that, Eve trusting to what the 
serpent said^_gtg~the fruit first ^oping 
thereby to obtain divinity, and tht^ to 
beco me super ior to her husband, whom 
she wished to rule, rather than ^bey. 
When, _ bowever, she f6uhd~Tier8elf 
deceived, she gave him of the fruft, in 
order that he should fare as she did. 
And she did not die at once, lest Adam 
should be terrified at the sight of her 
death, and so, not eat of the fruit. 

S. Ephrem's opinion agrees in part 
with the words of Eve : Atupo, Kvpik 
fiov, 'ASAji, iTraKovffSv fiov rdt 0dy£ dtrb 
Tov Kapirov rov SivSpov, ov ilwev d 
6«of, roil fjirj faytiv aw' avrov Kai (crt} 
us Qtog. " Come hither, my lord, Adam, 
and hearken to me and eat of the fruit 
of the tree, of which God told us not 
to eat; and thou shalt be as God," 
which she said, when disappointed and 
mortified at her own disobedience and 




transgression ('A jToicaXin^tC, in VitaAdcs 
et E., p. 64, 55). 

17 li. J. Abendana (Leqet Shecha, 
ad loc.) remarks on " one of his ribs," 
Gen, ii, 21, that yb^ "a rib," is 
feminine, and means IV "side," that 
confirms the opinion of Rabbis of 
blessed memory, that Adam was created 
7"'D12~1D "^T St TrpoffwTTov, with two 
sides, or faces ; the one male, the other 
female. See notes 18 and 24, 

Targ. Jonathan, in Gen, ii, does not 
agree with that ; but says that the rib 
taken out by God wa8rmD"^bn S^^V 
Sa^D"* "inD ]T21 the thirteenth rib on 
the right side, 

18 But R. Jeremiah B. Eliezer says, 
that in the hour God created Adam, 
He made him D13''2Tm3S, dvSpoywog 
man and woman ; as it is written : 
" male and female created He them," 
Gen. i, 27. But R. Shemuel Bar 
Nathan, holds that God created Adam 
)''D^!J'n2 V^, ^t-7rpo(7W7rov, with two 
faces ; the one looking one way, and 
the other looking the other way. He 
then sawed them asunder, into two 
backs, a back to the one and a back to 
the other, etc, {Bereshith Rab., fol. 9 ; 
and Yalk. Shimoni, fol, 6, 20), to which 
Matnoth Kah. adds, that one side was 
male and the other female. The same 
story is told in Talmud Bab. (^Berachoth, 
p, 121, ed, W.) where the commentary 
(R, Shelomoh) adds, that God did not 
" saw " Adam asunder, but split (HblJ) 
him in two, and made Eve out of one 
half. And elsewhere (Ervibin, p, 35), 
R. Jeremiah Ben Eliezer, repeating the 
same thing, founds his belief on Psalm 
cxxxix. 6, " Thou hast beset me, behind 
and before." 

Adam and Eve were twenty years 
old when created. "1D37 " dust " is 
masculine and ^Z3^N " earth " is 
feminine ; and He who formed them 
made them thus of the dust of the earth, 
male and female. And God made Adam 

V^plTl IV V"1Nn ^» Dbia in bulk 
(reaching) from earth to the firmament 
and then put breath into him. For 
" soul " is understood in five difEerent 
ways:— (1) Spirit; (2) breath; (3) 
intelligent single use of double mem- 
bers ; (4) life ; (6; and soul which is 
blood, as it is written : " For blood is 
the soul." (^Beresh. Rab., M. 17.) [This 
is treated at length in R, Sh, Palkeire's 
Sepher Nephesh, on Hebrew psycho- 
logy, 1864; and by Maimonides, in his 
preface to Pirke Avoth.^ R, S. Ben 
Melech (Miclol Yophi, Gen, i) under- 
stands " in the image of God " DTlbN, 
in the image of angels, like an angel, 
with breath given him from on high. 

And S. Macarius, Horn, xv, p. 88, ov 
yap Trepi Mtj^rtj)\ Kai FajSpuyX, rdv 
apxayykXuv tlTrtv, on Troififfajfuev Kar' 
tiKova Kui ofioiutTiv rifitTtpav: aWh 
irtpl Ttjg votpag ovaiag tov dvOpdnrov 
rrjs dOavdrov Xkyw i/'UX^C. 

R. Abarbanel (Com. in Pent, fol. 17) 
explains this, saying, Adam alone was 
created after the image and similitude 
of God [circumcised, according to R, 
Nathan, in Yalk. Shimoni, fol. 6, 16], 
being as it were the perfection of His 
creatures. And that, as some say, 
Adam was D13'*n'maS a Greek term, 
means that he had both the name and the 
form within him ; wherefore is he also 
said to have had ^"^21^")D''2tt7 two 
faces (or sides) the one male and the 
other female ; but the male was actually 
wrought out, whereas the female was 
n33 in posse. 

n-nnn bv nntn (in oen., foi. 

22, ad Liv.) explains it thus ; God said 
to His companions, " O ye that are with 
Me, is not this Adam a male emana- 
tion, with the female hidden within 
him ?" So was Adam. SnrpoffUTrog, 

n^n rvb >snb b!ss ]^D^!5-i2n 

mQ"n u7'2 yet in reality he had 
neither form nor similitude, bat was 
very high exalted, with a name that 




reached up to an idea of God — clad in 
the light God created at first. 

R. M. Maimonides (quoted in m7^^!l 
mwnpa, fol. 9) says, that God ad- 
dressed the earth when He said, " Let 
us make man." The earth was to give 
him all his earthy matter, and God, all 
his spiritual and intellectual faculties. 
The same is also told in y\\)'^ '* /3, fol. 
15 ; and again repeated by R. Bekai. 
See note 25. 

19 The tree had not in itself good and 
eyil, for there could be nothing evil in 
Paradise ; '6qoq 5k stsOt) stti ry 0ury 
irpoQ yvfxvaffiav ttjq i\sv9t(>i6r7]roc ; 
but the tree was set up as a mark (or 
limit) in order to bring out Adam's 
freedom of action— whether to obey 
(good) or to disobey (evil). For his 
knowledge of either was before the com- 
mandment given, not to touch of the 
fruit of the tree. (Cedrenus, Hist. Com- 
mend., p. 13.) 

20 When God said to his angels : " I, 
indeed, will put a [khaliph] vicar in 
the earth " — and commanded them to 
worship him, and they did so. But 
Eblis [Satan] would not ; he ( Goran, 
Bur. ii, .30, sq.) was proud, and became 
one of the infidels — then God asked him: 
" Why wilt thou not worship Adam ? " 
" Because," replied Eblis, " I am better 
than he ; Thou didst create me of fire, but 
him of mud," etc. {Goran, sar. vii, 12 and 
9). Then Satan, or the serpent, made 
Adam and Eve fall from Paradise to 
the earth: Adam in Serandib [Ceylon ; 
Adam's Peak] and Eve at Jeddali in 
Yemen, where she was buried (ihid. 
ibid.) [I visited her tomb in 1841 ; her 
head is said to be at one end of the 
burial ground, her body under the wely 
in the centre of it, and her feet at the 
farther end, some hundred yards apart. 
The Arab who took me to see it, could 
not help saying : Yd Khawajah, hi 
thaweeU, wallah ! sir, she was long 
indeed !J 

Ibn-Batntah (Travels, vol. iv, p. 179, 
sq.) gives a description of Adam's 
Peak in Serandib, of the two ways, for 
Adam and Eve, to the summit ; of the 
print of the foot, sunk into a black rock ; 
of trees whose leaves when eaten, restore 
old age to youth, etc. 

Masudi tells the same story, but adds, 
that some of the fig-leaves with which 
Adam was girt about, having been 
scattered by the wind in his fall from 
Paradise, those leaves became the sweet 
spices for which Ceylon is celebrated. 
(Masudi, ch. iii, p. 60, 61.) 

21 R. Eliezer improves upon the 
account given in Beresh. Eabhah, quoted 
above (note 18), and says the first man 
reached from earth to the sky, and from 
east to west when he lay down. But 
after his transgression God laid His 
hand upon him 1lD"^37D1 and made him 
small i as it is said Psalm cxxxix. 6, 
" Thou hast beset me, etc., and laid Thy 
hand upon me." So also R. Jehudah 
avers in the name of all the Rabbis of 
blessed memory that it was so. (Talmud 
Bab. Hagigah, p. 23.) While reading the 
Kand jur, I often wondered there could be 
men found to write and to believe such 
things. But they are not more absurd 
than the lore of the Talmud, whereof 
we read among other warnings : " My 
son, give heed to the words of the writers 
(Rabbis) rather than to the law itself." 
(Erubin, p. 42.) " For he who has only 
S"1pZ3 the text of the Bible, without the 
Talmud, is like one that has no God." 
(Share tsedek, fol. 9 Eis.) And " to 
contradict such teaching, is 73? pblPTiD 
n3"^DB7n like one who would difier 
from, or contradict the Shekinah " 
(Presence of God, or Holy Ghost, 
according to Sepher Tezirah, p. 112, ed. 
Rittang). And for a man to go from 
the Talmud and to JlDbn "^2113 
N~)pa imb return to the Bible (or 
text) there is no more peace ! (Talm. 
Bab. Hagigah, p. 17.) 




22 Atch. xxvi (ii,p. 276) Maandi tells 
of a wonderful cup said to hare be- 
longed to Adam, that always remained 
full, however much was drunk out of 
it, whose virtue Alexander the Great 
tried on his visit to Ceylon. And 
Ibn Batutah (vol. iv, p. 167, sq.) relates 
his adventures on his pilgrimage to 
Adam's foot, the print of which is of 
an enormous size. [But is it not also 
Buddha's foot ?] Hyde in his notes 
to Peritsol (_Itinera Mundi, p. 2.5) 
refutes the etymology of Taprobana 
from Div (isle) Rohan — the name for 
Adam's Peak in the Coran; and proposes 
to bring " Serandib," from Selen, or "Sei- 
lan-dib," island of Seylan — Singhala.] 

El-kazwini (Ajdih i, p. 165), speaks 
of Jebel Serandib upon which Adam 
alighted — which shines with gold up to 
heaven, and is seen from a great dis- 
tance by sea-faring men. There is the 
print of Adam's foot sunk in the stone 
and about seventy yards long. The reason 
for which there is only one foot is — 
that Adam rested the other on the 
bottom of the sea. 

23 On the second week, says the 
Angel of the Face, we brought all the 
beasts to Adam, by command of God. 
On the first day, beasts ; on the second, 
cattle; on the third, birds; on the fourth, 
all that moves (creeps) on the face of 
the earth ; and on the fifth, all that 
moves in the waters ; and Adam called 
them all by their names, and that which 
he called them, was their name. (Kufale, 
p. 11.) 

24 Immediately after the transgression, 
Adam and Eve lost the angelic vision 
and intelligence they had before they 
transgressed God's commandment. And 
now their sight and power of discerning 
became limited only to matters corporeal 
and sensible. (S. Ephrem, vol. i, p. 139.) 

Bereshith Rahhah (Gen. ii, 7; and 
Jalkut Ruheni, fol. 13), says " That 
God gave Adam a twofold nature, partly 

of things above or divine, and partly of 
things earthly, such as eating, drinking ; 
and as to heavenly gifts, he was to stand 
over ' ministering angels.' " [These 
were called mE7n "•Dsb^ who were 
appointed to wait on him, namely, 
JEbel, Shetel, and Anush (Cod. Nasanr., 
p. 192, etc.). They were, however, 
frightened at Adam's size, that reached 
from earth to heaven ( Talk. Ruheni, fol. 
10) and so went up terrified, to ask God 
what He had created," according to 
Talkut Shimoni, on Gen. i. 

It must then have been when they came 
down back into Paradise, that according 
to R. Jehndah {Yalkut Shimoni, fol. 4; 
and Avoth of R. Nathan, fol. 2), " they 
waited on Adam, roasted his meat, and 
mixed his wine," ]">•< lb ]'»33D!3.] 

" Other heavenly gifts of Adam were 
speech, understanding, and faculty to 
look on the ' ministering angels ;' for 
animals cannot do it. For God said : 
"If I make him only of the earth 
(earthy) he will die ; if of heaven only, 
he will live." So his Creator made him 
up of those, and gave him a twofold 
nature knowing good and evil ; for 
animals know not the good." [See also 
Talm. Bab. BeracTwth, p. 61, on this 
same subject.] 

But R. S. Ben Melech (Miclol Tophi 
and Talk. Shimoni, fol. 6, 20, on Gen. i) 
says, that God made use of the expres- 
sion : " Let us make man," etc., merely 
as a mark of respect, being about to 
create Adam in presence of the four 
elements, and to make him partly of 
□"'iVby heavenly things, and partly 
of D"'Dinnn things of below, earthy. 
Instead of the four elements, Talmud 
Bab. {Sanhedrin, p. 78), says they were 
"VW m the great of the world ; and 
Mid/rash Nehelam (quoted in Talkut 
Ruiieni, fol. 10, ed. Amst.) says, that 
" the Wheel, the Angel, and the Throne 
(Ezech. i) joined together, saying, " Let 
ns make man to be in fellowship with 




ns, his breath from the Throne ; his 
spirit from the Angel, and his soul from 
the Wheel, in blessing, sanctification, 
and unity.'' Talk. Euheni, id. however, 
quotes another Midrash to show that 
God gathered together all things aboye 
and all things below, in fellowship with 
Himself, to take their share in the 
creation of m^. 

25 K. Bekai (Pvrush 'oZ aWh., fol, 8, 
ed. Crac.) sums up these and other 
explanations of "Let us make man," 
etc. (1) l2tt?Dn ^ll ^27— according 
to the text or simple sense, it is God and 
the earth, He as Creator and the earth 
as the mother of man; (2) as R. Kimchi 
sajs, it is an expression of majesty ; or, 
it is an address of God to Moses, when 
He told him to write, etc. 

26 When God, says R. Akha, came to 
create man, He took counsel with the 
ministering angels, and said to them: 
" Let us make man." Then they asked 
Him : " What will be his property ? " 
" His wisdom shall be greater than 
your own," said God ; and He brought 
before them beasts and birds, and asked 
them what they were. The angels did 
not know. God then asked Adam, who 
said, " This is an ox, an ass, a horse, 
and a camel." And what is thy name? 
said God. " It befits me to be called 
• Adam,' because I was made of the 
earth." " And what is My name ? " said 
God to Adam. " It befits Thee," said 
Adam, " to be called the Lord of all 
Thy [creatures]." Then God said: That 
is My name given Me first by Adam. 
(Beresh. R., sect, xvii, fol. 20.) 

And God said to the ministering 
angels who were created on the second 
day, and who ministered before Him : — 
*' Let us make man after our own image 
and similitude — with 248 members, 
365 nerves ; " He spread a skin over 
them, and filled the whole with flesh 
and blood, etc. (Targ. Jonathan, B. 
Vzziel'm Gen. i.) 

[For a learned treatise on cbjJ and 
nilDT with reference to Gen. i, 26, see 
More Nevukim, sect, i, c. i, of R. Maimo- 

" When God set about creating the 
world," said R. Jehudah, " He created 
one legion of ministering angels, and 
said to them : ' Is it your good pleasure 
that we should create man? ' To which 
they replied : ' What is man that Thou 
art mindful of him? ' Then God thrust 
His finger between them and consumed 
them. And so with a second legion. 
But the third said to Him : ' What the 
first angels said availed nothing ; the 
world is Thine ; do what seemeth the 
best.' " ( Yalkut Shimoni, ed. Crac., 
fol. 4.) 

"There is another tradition," says 
R. Eliezer, "that God said to the Law 
[which, according to the Talmud, was 
created before the world], Let us make 
man ! '' To which the Law answered : 
" What, he the ruler of the world ? his 
days will be shortened through sin ; a 
child of wrath; and unless Thou be long 
suflTering, it will be as if he had not 
been." " Am I then long suflFering in 
vain?" said God. "He then took 
some earth, red, white and greenish, 
from the four comers of the world ; 
red, adorn, for Adam; white, for his 
intestines ; and greenish for his body," 
&c. (lb. ihid., fol. 4.) 

27 After Adam's transgression God 
brought him, Eve, and the Serpent to 
judgment : He said to the Serpent : 
" Because thou didst that, thou shalt be 
cursed among aU the beasts of the 
field ; upon thy belly shalt thou go, 
1^5J!Jpn^ "I^72"T| thy legs shall 
be cut short; and thou shalt shed thy 
skin once in seven years ; a deadly 
venom shall be in thy mouth, and thou 
shalt eat dust all the days of thy life. 
I will put enmity between thee and the 
seed of the woman; those who keep the 
Law, shalt smite thee on the head; and 




thon shalt bite them in the heel. But 
there will be a remedy for them ,] '*^^^37') 

••ovn sap^yn MnvsK? nnviab 

KfT'tt^a MDbDl and they will apply 
that healing power to their heel, in the 
days of King Messiah. But when the 
Lord God said to Adam, " Thou shalt 
eat the herb of the surface of the field," 
Adam answered and said : " By the 
mercies that are of Thee, O Lord, let 
me pray that we be not reckoned as 
beasts of the field, to eat grass that 
grows thereon ; Let ns arise and toil 
with the labour of our hands, to eat 
our food from the yield of the earth ; 
so that from now a difference be made 
between the children of men and the 
beasts of the field," &c. (Targum, 
Jonathan, in Gen. iii.) 

In Bereshith Rah., sect, xix, we are 
told that R. Meir taught " that the 
serpent was wonderfully high ; " R. 
Jonathan, ' ' that he was erect, and his 
feet like canes ; " R. Jeremiah, " that 
he was DTTlp"'2S (Epicurus) a heretic 
or infidel ; " R. Simeon, " that he was 
like a camel;" &c Maimonides (in 
More Nevukim, sect, ii, c. 30) calls 
attention to a passage in the Midrash, 
where it is said "that D313 tt?n3n 
the serpent was being ridden, and was 
like a hairy camel ; and that he who 
rode him was he who beguiled Eve, 
namely, Samael, or Satan." And, 
again : " When the serpent seduced 
Eye, Samael was riding him ; but God 
shall laugh at the serpent and at his 
rider." Also, " When the serpent 
came to Eve, he sprinkled his filth over 
her ; " it will be wiped off the Israelites 
who stood on Mount Sinai : but the 
Gentiles retain it. (tbid.) The same 
story is told somewhat differently by 
R. Eliezer, in Talkut Shimoni, fol. 8, 
25. According to Bereshith B., sect. 20, 
and to Talk. Shimoni, fol. 9, 31, the 
ministering angels came down and 
1'»b2"TI Vl^ 1!J!Jp cut off his hands 

and his feet, and his cries were heard 
from one end of the world to the other. 

•28 What did that old serpent, that 
was jealous of Adam's glory, surrounded 
by ministering angels, think at the 
hour that he tempted Eve ? "I will go 
and kill Adam and the woman his wife, 
and I shall be king of the whole world; 
and I shall walk erect, and enjoy all 
the pleasures of the world.' ' Then God 
said to him : " Therefore will I put 
enmity between thee and man ; there- 
fore shalt thon alone be cursed of all 
beasts ; therefore, also, because of thy 
pride, and wish to walk erect and to 
enjoy all the pleasures of earth, shalt 
thou creep on thy belly all the days of 
thy life." (P. Avoth of R. Nathan, fol. 
2 ; and B^ Zoar in Talkut Bubeni, fol. 

The Rabbis hold that the serpent had 
intercourse with Eve, whence Cain was 
born and with him, sundrj- female infir- 
mities ; and that Samael, not being 
able (not having strength or power) to 
seduce Adam, turned to Eve as to the 
weaker of the two. (Zoar, in Yalk. 
Bubeni, fol. 16.) 

29 S. Ephrem (in Gen. vol. i, p. 3.5) 
says the serpent was made to crawl on 
its belly, " for having increased the pangs 
of childbearing, through the seduction 
of Eve." And at p. 135, "that the 
serpent was deprived of feet because it 
had hastened on them to come to Eve, 
and had sought to be chief among 

30 It is said, howevpr, by R. Eliezer 
(quoted in Eisenmenger's Entd. Jvd. i, 
377), that Adam had a staff which he 
gave to Enoch, Enoch to Noah, Noah to 
Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and 
Joseph; after Joseph's death his house 
was plundered, and the staff came into 
the hands of Pharaoh, who planted it 
in Jethro's garden. But when Moses 
was grown up he found it there covered 
with written characters ; he then took it 




and told Jethro this rod shonld deliver 
the children of Israel oat of Egypt, 

In i3''n-i SB?» hw D^xs^n '•'nm 

Paris. 1628, fol. 8, we read that " Moses 
having fled to Midian, and having be- 
come known to Jethro as an exile from 
Egypt, was by him put in prison. 
Moses, however, having pleased Zip- 
porah, she fed him in prison, where she 
always found him standing on his feet, 
praying (fol. 9). She then told her 
father that divine vengeance would over- 
take him, if he maltreated his prisoner. 
Jethro at once brought him out ; and 
gave public notice that whosoever would 
come and root out the rod that was 
planted and growing in his garden, to 
him would he give his daughter Zip- 
porah to wife. Many came, small and 
great, kings, princes, great men, and 
men of valour, but could not root it up. 
But Moses, while walking in Jethro's 
garden, saw that rod of sapphire (or 
diamond) vbv pIpH E?-1*l2»n CW, 
with the glorious name of Jehovah, 
engraved on it. He then rooted it up 
thence, at once, and it became a rod in 
his hand ; and he returned home with 
it in his hand. Jethro seeing this, 
marvelled much, and gave his daughter 
Zipporah to wife unto Moses, etc. 
[Another story says that the inscrip- 
tion on that rod was the initials of the 
ten plagues of Egypt.] 

But in the Debvritho of Mar Salo- 
mon of Botsra, c. xvii, we are told that 
Adam's stick was a branch of the tree 
of the knowledge of good and evil, 
which he broke (or cut) off the tree as 
he was leaving the Garden of Eden. 
(Assem, Bibl. Or., vol. ill, p. 212.) 

31 The Talmud and Josephus, as we 
have seen, teach that at first all animals 
had speech ; and Philo (Qucest. xxxii, 
Armen, in Gen.) is of opinion that " in 
the beginning of the existence of the 
world, all animals (or living creatures) 

wotch cmmam kol i panavoruthind, were 
not altogether deprived of reasoning 
power; although man excelled in this 
respect and in a clearer voice." Thus 
attributing a voice to the serpent, given 
it at the time, in order to seduce Eve ; 
which the gloss, however, says, ipr 
shtchmamp, was only a hissing, under- 
stood by Eve for what it meant. 

32 Our father Adam wept before the 
gates of Paradise, and the angels said 
unto him, " What wilt thou that we do 
to thee, Adam ?" He then answered, 
" Behold, ye cast me out ; I therefore 
intreat you to give me some sweet 
spices from Paradise, that when I am 
driven out of it, I may offer a sacrifice 
to God, that He may hear me." Then 
at the request of the angels, God gave 
Adam leave to gather from the garden, 
KpoKov Kai vdpSov Kal KctXa/jiov Kal 
Kivufiiofiov Kai XoiTra air'ipnara tig 
Siarpoipfiv avTov, saffron and spike- 
nard, and sweet-cane and cinnamon, 
and other seeds for his support. Having 
gathered them, he left the garden and 
dwelt in the land. ('ATroicaXw^tff in 
Vita Adce et E., p. 67.) 

33 " Nam et Magos reges fere habuit 
Oriens " (Tertull. Adv. Jvd., c. ix), and 
{Adv. Marc, c. xiii) " reges, dixit topar- 
chas urbis alicujus aut regionis — quales 
in sacris paginis occurrnnt saepenumero. 
Hujus modi reges variis per orientem 
urbibus magos fere f uisse ait Septimius ; 
hoc est, siderum astrorumque scientise 

We read in the History of Georgia 
{Ka/rt'hUs tskhovreha, ch. x, p. 39), that 
in the first year of king Aderki, ishwa 
wp'haU chweni Teso Kriste, our Lord 
Jesus Christ was bom in Bethlehem of 
Judah ; and that Magi came to bring 
him presents. Then news came to 
Mtzkhet'ha — the capital of Georgia at 
that time — about this coming of the 
Magi, " that an army was come to 
destroy Jerusalem." This caused great 




wailing among the Jews of the place, 
until the year after, other news was 
brought that " the army was not come 
to destroy the Holy City, but had with 
them presents they brought and offered 
to a certain male child, respecting his 
birth. This caused great joy among 
the Jews ; until some fourteen years 
later, a certain disciple called Anna 
came from Jerusalem, with other Jews 
of Mtzkhet'ha, and told the people that 
the child, to whom Magi had offered 
gifts, was now grown up, and called 
Himself the Son of God, and pro- 
claimed a new law and service," etc. 
See on this subject the last chapter of 
this work, and the notes thereon. 

34 X^vabv yoiiv avToi ycvvijOsirt, 
^amXtiag avfifioXov vpoatKoiiiaav oii 
Mdyot (Clem. Al. Pcedag., lib. ii, p. 176.) 
Tov fxev xP'"^ov wc fiaaiXii, tov Si 
Xipavov — (ij; Qi<i>, ttjv dt Oftvpvav — i)Q 
fikWovTi, yivaaadai Oavdrov. (Theo- 
phyl. in Matt, ii, etc.) S. Ephrem 
{in Nativ. Dom., Serm. iii,) omits " the 
incense," and TertuUian (Adh. Marc, 
c. xiii,) omits " the myrrh," but in De 
Idol., c. ix, he mentions, the gold, the 
incense, and the myrrh. 

35 Et dixit Adam ad Eyam : surge et 
vade ad Tigris fluvium — et sta in aqua 
fluminis xxxvii dies ; ego autem faciam 
in aqua Jordanis xl dies ; forsitan 
miseretur noetri Dominus Deus. Et 
transiemnt dies xviii. Tunc iratus est 
Satanas et transfiguravit se in claritatem 
angelorum et abiit ad Tigrem flumen 
ad Evam, et invenit cam flentem ; et 
ipse diabolas quasi condolens ei coepit 
flere et dixit ad cam : Egredere de flumine 
et de cetero non plores ; jam cessa de 
tristitia et gemitu. Quid sollicita es tn 
et Adam vir tuus ? Audivit Dominus 
gemitum vestrum, et suscepit peniten- 
tiam vestram — et misit me ut educerem 
Tos de aqua et darem vobis alimentum, 
quod habuistis in paradise et pro quo 
planxistis. Nunc ergo egredere de aqua 

et perducam vos in locum, nbi paratus 
est victus vester. 

Hsec audiens autem Eva credidit et 
exivit de aqua fluminis et caro ejus erat 
sicut herba de frigore aquse. Et cum 
egressa esset, cecidit in terram et erexit 
eam diabolus et perduxit earn at Adam. 
Cum autem vidisset eam Adam et diabo- 
lum cum ea.exclamayit cum fletu dicens: 
O Eva, Eva, nbi est f ructus penitentiae 
tuse ? Quomodo iterum seducta es ab 
adversario nostro, per quem alienati 
sumus as habitatione paradisi et Isetitia 
spiritali. Hsec cum audisset Eva cog- 
novit quod diabolus suavit exire de 
flumine et cecidit super faciem suam 
in terram et duplicatus est dolor et 
gemitus et planctus ab ea. ( Vita Adoe et 
EvoB p. 39, 40.) 

36 Surgamus, ait Adam, etquseramus 
nobis, unde vivamus, ut non deficiamus. 
Et ambulantes quaesierunt novem dies 
et non invenerunt sicut habebant in 
paradiso, sed hoc tantum inveniebant, 
quod animalia edebant ; et dixit Adam 
ad Evam : haec tribuit Dominus ani- 
malibns et bestiis, ut edant : nobis 
autem esca angelica erat. Sed juste et 
digne plangimus ante conspectum Dei, 
ut. {Vita AdcB et Evm, p. 38.) 

37 is^-innsi s-iQiti irinb p 

rT'Il of the raiment, " onyx " (sweet 
perfume), "in which they were created," 
says Targ. Jonathan, in Gen. iii. 

38 It seems as if the legend of the 
golden rods, and of these figs and fig- 
trees of an enormous size, reached 
farther east than Egypt, where the 
original of this Ethiopic translation 
was probably written. For R. M. 
Maimonides, speaking of the Sabaians 
(or Zabians), says : They all believed 
in the antiquity of the world, for 
heaven (the heavens) are to them 
instead of God, They also believed 
that the first man Adam was born of 
a man and a woman, like all other 
men. But they extolled him greatly, 




saying he waa a prophet-apostle for the 
moon, and called men to the worship 
of the moon ; and that D^"!!!!!! ^^ W^ 
niaiSn minjya there are books 
of his extant on the tillage of the 
land. They say of Adam, moreover, 
that when he came from the [climate] 
land of CStrn [Tasom, or Tasham], 
near India, and dwelt in the land of 
Babylon, he brought with him wonder- 
ful things ; among others, a tree of 
gold that yielded branches, leaves, and 
flowers [of gold] ; also a like tree of 
Btone, with leaves that fire could not 
burn, and that could shelter 10,000 men 
as tall as Adam. And he brought with 
him two leaves, each of which could 
cover two men. But they also say that 
Seth departed from Adam's worship of 
the moon, etc. {More Nevukim, sect, iii, 
ch. 29.) 

They also say that Adam relates in 
his book on the tillage of land, that 
there is in India a tree, whose branches, 
when thrown upon the ground, wriggle 
and creep like a serpent, etc. (Ibid.) 

39 In Targum Jonathan, however, we 
read that God made for Adam and Eve 
"*P"**1 1"'^"'^'' robes of honour of the 
skin of the serpent, which it had 
sloughed off ; and God covered their 
skin withal, instead of their own beauty 
of which they were stripped. (In Gen., iii.) 

40 Si cui igitur eorum, qui certant 
vel lumen, vel figura quaepiam ad 
similitndinem ignis appareat, ne am- 
plectatur hujusmodi visum ; est enim 
fallacia inimici manifesta; quae quidem 
res multos fefellit, qui propter ignoran- 
tiam, a via virtutis deflexerunt. Nos 
antem scimus quod quamdiu sumus in 
hac mortali vita, aliquid coelestium 
miraculorum ejus videre aspectn cor- 
poris non possumus. ( B. Diadochns, de 
perfect. spiritiuiU, c. xxxvi.) 

41 Before the law fell on Adam [doom, 
after his transgression] he ate no food ; 
but after the law had fallen on him, he 

and his family [Abel was bom to him 
before the fall, II, p. 122] arose, and 
ate of all the fruits, vegetables, and 
living things Fetahil had prepared for 
him. {Cod. TVosor. ii, p. 134.) 

42 This account agrees with that of 
Abul-pharaj or Bar. Hebrsens {Dyn. 
Arab., p. 6 ; Chron. Syr., p. 3), who calls 
Cain's sister Climia, and Abel's Lebada. 
Arab writers on the Coran, however, 
say that Eve always brought forth twins; 
a boy and a girl (Maracci, sur. v) ; 
while Sidra V Adam {Codex Nasar.) of 
the Mandasans (ed. Norberg ii, p. 120, 
sq.), says that after Fetahil had created 
the world and Adam and Eve, to whom 
he gave feet to walk and a mouth to 
speak, he made for Adam a son like 
unto himself — pure and sinless, called 
Abel ; before Abel the son of Eve. 
But after Adam and Eve had returned^ 
to the land (Elda) in which they had 
been created, Eve brought forth twins, 
son and daughter, three years following, 
etc. According to the Kufale (p. 16), 
however, Cain was born in the third 
week (of years) of the second Jubilee 
(seventieth year from creation, Syncell.), 
Abel in the fourth ; and his sister Awan 
(Aswam, Asauna, Syncell.) in the fifth. 
But according to Methodius (Bar. Hebr., 
Syr.) called Mar Thudiusi in Arabic, 
(Dyn., p. 6), Cain and Climia were born 
thirty years after Adam and Eve came 
cat of the garden ; Abel and Lebuda 
thirty years later. It was seventy years 
after, that Adam wishing to marry them 
one to another, Cain slew his brother. 

Targ. Onkelos in Gen. iv, 2, renders 
the Hebrew text correctly ; but Targ. 
Jonathan, says that after the birth 
of Cain, Eve brought forth his twin 
sister and Abel — although it is not 
easy to understand how that could be. 

Eve, says S. Ibn-Batrik (Eutychus), 
conceived and brought forth a son called 
Cain and a daughter called Azrun. 
Then she conceived again and gave 




birth to a son called Abel, and to a 
daughter called Awain, bat in Greek, 
Laphura. (Nazam al-j., p. 14.) 

43 Or, grudged it. " He," says Philo 
on this, " who slays a victim [or, sacri- 
fice], after dividing it, pours out the 
blood about the altar, and takes home 
the meat. But he who brings an 
offering, gives it whole, as we see, to 
him who takes [or, receives] it. Thus 
he who is selfish [a lover of self] like 
Cain, parts or divides [his offering] ; 
but he, who like Abel, is a lover of God, 
devotes [to Him] his gift." (^Qwcest. in 
Oen., Armen. Ixii.) 

44 According to Said Ibn-Batrik 
(Eutychus) when the sons were grown 
up, Adam said to Eve : " Let Cain take 
Owain, that was born with Abel, and 
let Abel take Azrun who was bom with 
Cain." Then, said Cain to Eve his 
mother, " I will take my sister, and Abel 
shall take his sister; because Azrun 
was fairer than Owain." But when 
Adam heard these words, he was greatly 
perplexed, and said to Cain : " It is 
against the commandment that thou 
shouldest marry the sister that was born 
with thee." (^Nazam al-j., pp. 14-17.) 

According to S. Epiphanius, Hoeres.xl, 
5, the Archontici, heretics in Palestine, 
held that o SidjSoXoQ iXQuty irpbg rryv 
'Evav, <TvvT}<p9t) aury wg dvijp ywvancj, 
Kai iyivvtfffev l^ airov tov n K«tV teat 
rbv *A/3«\ — and that the two brothers 
did not fall out on account of God's 
preference for Abel, but because they 
both wished to have the same sister in 
marriage. Therefore did Cain kill Abel. 
For a Gnostic account of this, see S. 
Irenaeus, Hoeres, lib. i, p. 110 (ed. 
Grabe) ; concerning which statements 
Theodoritus says (Haires, lib. i, 11), 
" were I to repeat them koivuivhv rffQ 
ipXvapiaQ vTriXajSov,! might be thought 
to share in their folly." 

45 Why then did Cain and Abel 
quarrel together? Because, answers 

E. Arona, the fairest twin sister was 
bom with Abel. Cain, then said, " I shall 
take her to wife because I am the eldest." 
But Abel said : " But I will have her 
because she was bom with me." (^Beresh. 
Kabbah, sect, xxii, fol. 26.) 

Said Ibn-Batrik relates that Adam 
then said to Cain and to Abel, " Take ye of 
the fruits of the earth, and of the young 
of your flock, and go to the top of that 
holy mountain, and make an offering 
there; and then take your wives to 
yourselves." Cain offered of the best 
fruits of the earth ; and Abel of the best 
of his flock. Meanwhile, as they were 
going up the mountain, Satan entered 
(the heart) of Cain to kill his brother 
because of Azrun his sister. Therefore 
God did not accept Cain's offering. 
(_Nazam al-j., p. 17.) 

This is contrary to Scripture. Tar- 
gum Onkelos, renders the Hebrew ; but 
Targum Jonathan says, that "Cain 
and Abel made their offering on the 
fourteenth of Nisan, and that Cain's 
offering was MirT'D 3?"nQ of flax- 
seed." Gen. iv, 2, sq. Or, according 
to Bk, Zoar, quoted in Yalk. Bubeni, 
fol. 21, Cain's offering was of^Htt^D 
flax, his thoughts dwelling on covering 
his nakedness from before the Lord. 

Josephus (Antiq. i, c. 2) says, Abel 
offered ydXa, Kai rd jrpwroronca tuv 
fioaKtjjinTuv milk, and the firstlings of 
his flock. 

46 God said to Cain, " "Why is thy 
countenance sad ? If thou doest well, 
•hall not thy guilt be forgiven thee ? 
But if thou doest evil in this life, thy 
sin shall be reserved unto the great day 
of Judgment, and thy sin shall lie at 
the door of thy heart. Behold, I have 
made over to thee Sn!J"'T n"*mtt7") 
Stt7^3 power (or, authority) over [thy] 
evil nature ; the desire of it will be 
unto thee [it will solicit thee to evil] ; 
but thou shalt rule over it, whether for 
good [purity] or for sin " [lit. between 




pnrity (or, holiness) and between sin]. 
(Targ. Jonathan in Gen. iv.) 

47 Then Cain said to Abel, " Let us go 
down into the Tale." Hence we see 
either that they were living on the slope 
of the mountain of Paradise, whence 
Cain led his brother into the plain 
below, or that Abel was tending his 
sheep on the hill, whence Cain brought 
him down into the vale, suited to him 
by reason of the standing corn and 
mud ; among which Cain could easily 
hide and bury his brother. (S. Ephrem, 
in Gen., vol. i, p. 41.) 

48 Cain said to Abel his brother. Let 
us go into the field. When there Cain 
said, " There is no judgment ; there is 
no Judge ; there is no world to come, 
and there is neither reward for the 
righteous nor retribution to the wicked." 
But Abel replied, " There is a Judgment 
and there is a Judge ; there is a world 
to come, and there is both a reward to 
the righteous, and a punishment to the 
wicked." And as they were disputing 
about this in the field, Cain rose against 
his brother, stuck a stone into his 
forehead and killed him. (Targ. Jonath. 
and Jer., in Gen. iv.) 

49 Josephus (Antiq. i, c. 2) says, that 
Cain Tov VEKpbv avrov iroltjaaQ Supavij 
Xijtrtiv virkXajiiv ; and S. Ephrem as 
stated above, says that as Abel tended 
his sheep on a hill, Cain allured him 
into the plain, where he might easily 
hide his body among the tall ears of 
com, and i^medro thamre hico, and 
cover it with mud. But in the Coran 
(sur. v, 37) we read : faba'ath alldhu 
ghuraban ydbhathu fi-llardh, that God 
sent a raven that scratched the earth to 
show Cain how to hide his brother's 
corpse. Jelal, however (Maracci, p. 229) 
says that this raven had a dead one in 
its beak, which it hid in the earth after 
having dug it with its beak and claws. 
But Masudi (ch. iii, p. 64) says that 
God sent forth two ravens, one of which 

killed and bnried the other. Seeing 
this, Cain repeated the words of the 
Corcm, sur. v, 34 : " Wretched man that 
I am, why cannot I be like this raven 
and hide my [shame or] guilt against 
my brother ?" He then buried him. 

Mid/rash Tankhuma (p. 6, ed. Amst.) 
however, says that they were m3")3y 
D'*"nniS two clean birds, one of which 
killed its fellow, then dug the earth 
with its feet and buried it, in the 
presence of Cain, and in order to show 
him how to bury his brother, and to 
hide his blood. 

R. Eliezer (Pvrke, etc.), however, 
as quoted in Yalkut Shimoni, fol. ii, 
says that, the Itt'^a nMQ? dh^n 
bnn bW l3S!i dog who kept Abel's 
sheep, watched by his corpse to ward off 
beasts and birds of prey from it, And 
that as Adam and his help-meet sat by 
the corpse, wailing aloud over their 
son who lay dead, not knowing what to 
do, a raven that had killed its fellow 
said to them, " I will show you what to 
do." It then began to dig in the earth, 
and buried the bird. Then Adam said 
to Eve, " Let us do the same ; " and 
they dug the earth, and buried Abel. 

I, Enoch, came to a place where I 
saw the spirits of the departed ; and I 
asked Raphael who was with me, " What 
spirit is it whose voice reaches me and 
accuses ? " And Raphael answered: " It 
is the spirit of Abel, whom Cain his 
brother killed ; and who will accuse him 
until his seed is destroyed from off the 
face of the earth, and from the race of 
men his seed defiles." I then asked 
Raphael about him and about the day 
of judgment, and why he was separated 
from the rest [or one from another]. 
Then he answered : " These three separa- 
tions, by chasm, water and light above, 
have been made between the spirits of 
righteoas men, from sinners — when they 
are buried in the earth ; and great is 
the suffering of sinful spirits, until the 




great Day of Judgment, etc. (Book of 
Enoch, c. xxii, p. 14, 15.) 

Before Caia had killed his brother, 
the land yielded fruit like the Garden 
of Eden; but after that murder, the 

land turned to yield only thoma and 
thistles. (Targ. Hieros. in Gen. Iv.) 

50 Targnm Jonathan, however, says 
this sign was «n^p>T «ni SQtt? of the 
great and precious Name. (In Gen. iv.) 


1 Masndi (i, cli. ill, p. 65), gives a 
popular ditty said to have been com- 
posed by Adam, while mourning for 
Abel. " How changed is the land and 
those who dwell in it 1 The face of the 
earth is now but hideous dust ; Every- 
thing has lost both flavour and colour ; 
Mirth and gladsome faces are gone ; 
And our family has taken the tama- 
risk and other weeds, for the sweet and 
lovely plants of Paradise. Around us 
[watches] a relentless foe, accursed, at 
whose death we should breathe freely. 
Cain has slain Abel cruelly [or with 
violence] ; Oh, sorrow — over that beau- 
tiful countenance I How should I not 
shed floods of tears, while the grave 
embraces Abel ? There is now for me 
but a life-long sorrow; for what relief 
could I find from it ? " 

To which Eblis, who was at hand, 
though unseen replied : — 

" Go from this land, and from its 
inhabitants, for the earth is now too 
narrow for thee. Thou, Adam wast in 
it with thy wife Eve, happy at being 
safe from the woes of this world ; But 
my wiles and my craft rested not, until 
thou wast deprived of those goods. And 
unless the mercy of the Most High pro- 
tected thee, the wind alone would carry 
thee far from the everlasting Paradise." 

See Fabricius Cod. Apoc. V. T., vol. i, 
p. 21, sq., for " The Psalms of Adam 
and Eve." 

2 R. Abarbanel, Comm. in Pent. 
p. 30, says that Eve conceived twins in 
the Garden of Eden ; and that what is 
told in the Midrash is true, that she 
must have brought forth twins [though 
not so stated in Scripture], otherwise 
Cain could not have taken a wife, and 
have had children by her, whose name 
was Ana, etc. 

3 When Eve conceived Seth, her 
forehead shone, light brightened up her 
features, and her eyes flashed rays of 
light; and when the time came that she 
should be delivered, she brought forth 
Sheit [Seth] an eagle among men, who 
excelled them in grace, beauty of form, 
perfection of gifts, nobleness of dis- 
position; and resplendent of light which, 
passing from Eve into him, shone on 
his forehead, and enhanced his beauty ; 
so that Adam called him Hibbet Allah, 
" Gift of God." When Seth was grown 
up, Adam taught him his high calling 
as depository of God's will concerning 
his race, etc. etc. — Masudi i, ch. iii, pp. 
67, 68. 

In the two hundredth year of Adam, 
says Syncellus, Seth was taken up by 
angels and taught the falling away of 




the Watchers, the destrnction of the 
earth by the Flood, and the coming of 
the Saviour, "When after forty days* 
absence he returned among men, he 
then declared to Adam and Eve what 
he had seen and heard, etc. Seth was 
then forty years old; he was beautifully 
formed, as all his children were after 
him. They dwelt in a high land not far 
from Eden, etc. (Ch/ron. p. 16, 17; and 
Cedren. Hist, Comp. i, p. 16.) 

Adam when two hundred and thirty 
years old, begat a son whom he called 
Seth, of a beautiful countenance, tall, 
and of a perfect stature like his father 
Adam. (Said Ibn-Bat. Nazam al-j., 
p. 17.) 

The Archontici say (S, Epiph. Hoeres. 
xl, 7), rrjv Avvafiiv <ri)v rolg inrovpyoXe 
Tov ayaBov Oeov 'ayycXo iQ ^DSvX3 
n'nli7n)Kara/3«/3»jK£vat Kal ■qgiraKivai 
avTov TOV "ZtfO Kai avevt}VOKevai dvia 

TTOV K. T. \. 

4 Adam knowing in his own vnsdom 
that this son would not, like Abel, seek 
after glory and kingdom, and that he 
would not be like Cain, eager after 
possessions, and a tiller of the ground — 
but that he would give himself to 
spiritual and intellectual pursuits — 
called him HW, Seth, because nHHW 
ub^Vn nnWV l^natr? he saw that 
the world would be founded on him. 
(K. Abarbanel, Comtn. in Pent, fol. 31.) 

Seth was weaned when twelve years 
old, says Cedrenos {Hist. Comp. i, p. 
16) ; and his face shone so brightly 
that they called him a god ! 

5 This chapter looks like a Christian 
version of the story of Lilith (rT^b^b), 
a night owl, but also "lamia," a she 
devil, often mentioned in Rabbinical 
writings. Elias Levita (TisKbi, ed. Isn., 
sn. 6, v), says, " one finds written that 
during the one hundred and thirty 
years Adam was separated from Eve, 
demons (D**"?!!?) visited him, con- 
ceived and bare him demons, unclean 

spirits and wicked sprites ()''p'*TlD)." 
And R. Eliezer adds, " When God created 
the first man alone, He said, ' It is not 
good for man to be alone.* He created 
for him a woman out of the earth whom 
He called Lilith, who bare him every 
day a hundred children, that were dis- 
persed abi'oad among the lands, seas, 
mountains," etc. ( Ben Syra in Buxtorf , 
Lex. V, p. 114, 8. 1.) 

And elsewhere we are told in agree- 
ment with such stories, that "Adam 
was driven from Paradise on the Sab- 
bath-eve, down into the lowest of the 
seven earths (n^innnn V''^) where 
he spent the whole Sabbath in terror and 
in utter darkness. But when he had re- 
pented of his sin God brought him up to 
(nDTS) the ground above that, where 
alight lighted the firmament of heaven, 
etc. As regards the inhabitants of that 
earth (Adamah) they are all Anakim of 
immense size, which the first man begat 
together with demons, spirits and 
Liliths O'^b'^b) which Lilith bare unto 
him, when she overcame him against 
his will, during the one hundred and 
thirty years he was separated from Eve," 
etc. ('Eweg hammelek, fol. 179, quoted 
in Eisenmeng., vol. i, p. 459.) 

6 Postquam factns est Adam annos 
dccccxxx, sciens quoniam dies ejus 
finiuntur dixit : Congregantur ad me 
omnes filii mei ut benedicam eos, ante- 
quam moriar — congregati sunt, et 
interrogaverunt eum : Quid tibi est 
pater, ut congregares nos? et quare 
jaces in lecto tuo ? Et respondens Adam 
dixit : Filii mei, male mihi est doloribns. 
Et dixerunt ad eum omnes filii ejus : 
Quid est pater, male habere doloribus ? 
Et respondit Adam et dixit : Audite 
me, filii mei, Quando fecit nos deus 
me et matrem vestram — posuit nos in 
Paradiso — dedit nobis Dominus Deus 
angelos duos ad dustodiendos nos, 
Venit hora ut ascenderent angeli in 
conspcctu Dei adorare. Statim invenit 




locmn adTOrsarias diabolns dnm ab- 
sentes essent angeli ; et seduxit diabolns 
matrem vestram, nt mandacaret de 
arbore illicita et contradicta. Et man- 
dacavit et dedit mihi. Et statim iratas 
est nobis Dominns Deus et dixit ad me 
Dominus : Eo quod dereliquisti manda- 
tnm meom et verbum meum quod con- 
fortavi tibi non cnstodisti, ecce inducam 
in corpus tnnm Ixx plagas; diversis 
doloribus ab initio capitis et oculorum 
et anrium nsqne ad angolas pedum, et 
per singula membra torquemini. 

Quum vidisset eum flentem in magnis 
doloribus, coepit ipsa flere, dicens : 
Domine Deus mens, in me transfer 
dolorem ejus, quoniam ego peccavi. 
Et dixit Eva ad Adam. Domine mi, 
da mihi partem dolorum tuorum, 
quoniam a me culpa hsec tibi accessit. 
{Vita AdcB et Evm, p. 48, 49.) 

7 " When Adam's death," says Eu- 
tychus, "drew near, he called his son 
Seth, Enos, the son of Seth, Cainan, 
the son of Enos, and Mahalaleel, the 
son of Cainan, and commanded them 
saying, ' Let this commandment be 
to your children. When I am dead 
embalm my body with myrrh, incense 
and cassia [or, cinnamon] and lay 
me in the Cave of Treasures. And 
whichever of your sons is living at the 
time of your leaving the borders of the 
garden (Paradise), let him take my 
body with him, and place it in the 
middle of the earth ; for from thence 
will come my salvation and that of all 
my children.' " (Nozam al-j., p. 18.) 

Adam, the first man created, having 
heard John discoursing of Christ in the 
region of darkness, said to Seth his 
son, " O my son, I desire thee to tell the 
ancestors of our race and the prophets, 
whither I send thee, when I fell sick unto 
death." Then Seth said, "Patriarchs 
and prophets hearken. My father Adam 
when he fell sick unto death, sent me to 
make a request unto God, close to the 

gates of Paradise, that He would guide 
me through the leading of an angel, to 
the Tree of Mercy (that is, of the oil 
of mercy) that I take some of the oil, 
and anoint my father, and raise him 
from his sickness. That, I have done. 

"Then, after my prayer, the angel of 
the Lord coming to me, said, What is 
thy request, O Seth ? Thou askest for 
the oil that raises the sick, or for the 
tree whence that oil flows, for thy 
father's sickness. Thou canst not find 
it now. Gro thy way, and tell thy father, 
that when five thousand five hundred 
years from the creation shall be fulfilled, 
the Only Begotten Son of God, shall 
come upon earth in a human body, and 
that He will anoint him with that oil ; 
and that He will wash him and his 
children (Trkvvtt) with water and with 
the Holy Ghost ; and that thy father 
will then be cured of every disease. 
For the present, this is impossible. The 
patriarchs and prophets hearing this, 
rejoiced greatly," (Evangel. Nicodemi 
Griec^, c xix, ed. Thilo.) The Latin 
copy, as given by Fabricius, Cod. Apoer. 
V. T., vol. i, p. 278, which is followed 
by the A.-Saxon version (ed. Thwaites, 
Oxon, 1698) differs from the Greek in 
some respects. See also Cotel. Pat. 
Apost. vol. i, p. 497, note, 

8 Adam having in the six hundredth 
year, repented of his transgression, 
received by revelation through Uriel, 
who is set over those who repent, — a 
knowledge of the Watchers, of the Flood, 
and of other things to come. (Sync. 
Chron., p,l8,) He died aged nine hundred 
and thirty, on the same day as that on 
which he had transgressed. Inasmuch 
as one thousand years are as one day 
among heavenly witnesses, as it was 
written on the Tree of Knowledge that 
he should die on the day he ate of its 
fruit, Adam did not complete the day of 
one thousand years, by seventy years, 
but died on that same day. {Kujale, 





p. 19.) Adam also learnt of Uriel abont 
the prayers sent np on high, day and 
night, by the whole creation, through 
Uriel who presides over repentance. At 
the first hour of the day — prayer in 
heaven ; second hour — prayer of angels ; 
third hour — of birds ; fourth hour — of 
cattle ; fifth hour — of wild beasts ; 
sixth hour — angels attend, and set in 
order the whole creation ; seventh hour 
— angels go into the presence of God, 
and come out thence ; eighth hour — 
praises and offerings of angels ; ninth 
hour — prayers and supplications of men ; 
tenth hour — prayers of heavenly and 
earthly beings ; eleventh hour — con- 
fession and rejoicings of all ; twelfth 
hour — men's intercessions accepted by 
God. (Cedren. Hist. Comp., p. 18; and 
M. Glycas, AutmI., p. 228; also Fabi-ic, 
Cod. Apoc. V. T., vol. i, p. 14, sq.) 

9 After Seth, Adam begat nine 
more children. (^Kufale, p. 16.) And 
when he died he left thirty-three sons 
and twenty-six daughters ; having been 
chief of his kindred all the days of his 
life. (Syncell. Chron., p. 19.) 

10 All the time Adam lived, says 
Said Ibn-Batrik (Eutyclius), was nine 
hundred and thirty years. He died on 
a Friday, in the fourteenth night from 
the new moon, being the sixth of Nisan, 
which is Barmudeh, at the ninth hour 
of that Friday. That is the hour at 
which he was driven from Paradise. 
When Adam was dead, his son Seth 
embalmed him, as he had commanded 
him. And Seth took his body up the 
mountain, and buried it in the Cave of 
Treasures. And they mourned over 
him forty days. {Nazam al-j., p. 18.) 

Et sicut prsedixit Michael archan- 
gelus, post sex dies venit mors Ada;. 
Cum cognovisset Adam, quia hora venit 
mortis suse, dixit ad omnes filios suos, 
Ecce sum annorum dccccxxx, et si 
mortuue f uero, sepelite me contra ortum 
del magnum habitatiouibus. Et fac- 

tnm est eum finisset omnes sermones 
illius, tradidit spiritum. Et videt Seth 
manum domini extensam tenentem 
Adam. Et scpelierunt Adam et Abel, 
Michael et Urihel angeli in partibus 
paradisi, videntibns Seth et matro 
ejus et alio nemine. (Fito Adce et JS., 
pp. 58 and 66.) 

1 1 The Life [He who is Life — eternal 
life, also called Supreme Life, as dis- 
tinguished from the second or lesser 
life — that of mortals], the Supreme 
Life having taken counsel, sent deliver- 
ance to Adam, from his body, and from 
this world of sorrow. Then his soul 
was severed from the body, to which it 
said, " Why do we tarry, in this foul 
body ? The Deliverer will come and 
set us free." Then the Deliverer came 
— touched Adam, and said to him : 
" Arise, O Adam, shake off thy foul 
body, house of clay, which the seven 
star-angels made for thee ; the Life 
sends me to fetch thee back to the place 
whence thou camest, where thy parents 
live." Hearing this, Adam began to 
weep, and said : " My father, if I go 
with thee, who will take care of this 
world — of Eve my wife — of the crops 
I have sown — of this house which I 
occupied — of the fruits of my garden ? 
Who will draw water from the Eu- 
phrates and from tlxe Tigris to water 
my plants ? Who will bind the ox to 
the plough — put the seed in the earth — 
and gather in the harvest ? Who will 
befriend the orphan and the widow, 
clothe the naked, and set free the cap- 
tive ? " 

" Come, come," said the Deliverer to 
Adam ; " come, and put on thy garment 
of light, where the sun never sets ; 
wear on thy brow the crown of glory ; 
gird thyself with water wherein is no 
pain, and sit on the throne, made ready 
for thee by the Eternal Life," etc. "But 
Father," said Adam, "if I go with Thee 
who will take care of my body — wake 




it up where it lies, and give it food to 
eat, or shelter it from the storm — or keep 
the beasts of the field from devouring 
it, or the birds of the air from nestling 
themselves in the hair of my head," etc., 
etc. {Cod. Nasar., pp. 140-142.) 

12 Then the Messenger of Life came, 
took Eve away from an evil crowd, and 
put an end to her sorrow. She then 
fell upon her face before him and said, 
" Welcome art thou, O Lord; take me to 
Thy company above, and bring my soul 
oat of this body." " I am come," said 
the Messenger of Life, " to fetch thee — 
thou shalt rest in light, and thy counten- 
ance shall shine for ever," etc. (Cod. 
Nazar., iii, p. 166, sq.) 

Post sex dies vero quod mortuus est 
Adam, cognoscens Eva mortem snam, 
congregavit omnes filios suos et filiaa 
suas, qui f uerunt Seth cum xxx fratribus 
et xxx sororibus, et dixit eis Eva : Au- 
dite me filii mei — dixit nobis Michael 
archangelus : propter prsevaricationes 
vestras generi vestro superinducet domi- 
nus noster warn jvdicii sui primum 
per aquam, secundum per ignem; his 
duobns judicabit Dominus omne huma- 
num genus. 

Facite ergo, tabnlas lapideas et alias 
tabulas luteas, et scribite in his omnem 
vitam meam et patris vestri quae a nobis 
audistis et vidistis. Si per aquam j udi- 
cabit genus nostrum, tabulae de terra 
solrentur et tabulae lapideae permane- 
bnnt si autem per ignem judicabit genus 
nostrum, tabulae lapideae solventur, et 
de terra Inteae decoquentur. Haec 
omnia cum dixisset Eva filiis suis 
tradidit spiritum. Postea cum magno 
fletu sepelierunt cam — et cum essent 
lugentes quattuor dies tunc apparuit eis 
Michael archangelus dicens ad Seth : 
homo Dei, ne amplius lugeas mortuos 
tuos quara sex dies, quia septimo die 
signum resurrectionis est futuri seculi 
requies. — Tunc Seth fecit tabulas. ( Vita 
AdcB et K, pp. 58, 59, 66.) 

13 After the death of Adam, the 
family of Seth severed itself from the 
family of Cain the accursed. For Seth, 
taking with him his firstborn son Enos, 
with Cainan the son of Enos, and Maha- 
laleel the son of Cainan, with their wives 
and children, led them up the mountain 
to the top, where he buried Adam. But 
Cain and all his children abode in the 
vale, where he had slain Abel. (Euty- 
chus, Nazam al-j., pp. 20, 21.) 

But Cain, after many wanderings 
etc Toirov rivet Ka'ivav dvo[ia!^6fiivov 
»/X0e, came to a certain place called 
Cainan, where he committed all manner 
of crimes, laying wait for way-faring 
men and putting them to death, and 
heaping up wealth untold from his 
spoils of them. (S. Eustath. Antioch, in 
Hexaemeron, fol. 749, ed. M.) 

14 The children of Seth lived on that 
mountain in the practice of purity [or, 
of innocence], and were in the habit of 
hearing the voices of angels, from whom 
they were not far apart, and with whom 
they joined in worshipping and praising 
God; and they, with their wives and 
children were called " Sons of God." 
They did no work, neither sowed nor 
reaped ; but their food was fruits of 
trees. There was among them neither 
envy, injustice, nor lying ; and their 
bond (pledge or faith— iman/iMW*) was, 
"No, by the blood of Abel." They 
went up to the top of the Holy mountain 
every day, and worshipped before God, 
and blessed themselves in the body of 
Adam. (Said IhD-B&t.,Nazamal-j.,Tp.^l.) 

15 Then when the death of Seth drew 
near, he adjured his children by the 
blood of Abel, that not one of them 
should go down from this holy moun- 
tain, and not to let one of their children 
go down to the children of Cain the 
accursed. All the time Seth lived was 
nine hundred and twelve years. (Said 
Ibn-B., Nazam al-j., p. 21.) 

16 R. Maimonidcs is not of the same 





opinion ; for he says not only that in 
the days of Enos men went far astray 
and the mind of thought of wise men 
became stupified, but that tt?13MT 
D'>3?"ll3n ]» in!53y Enos himself was 
among those who erred. [This, too, is 
far fix)m Philo's distinction between 
Adam and Enos. Qucest. Armen. in 
Cren.] And the error, says Maimo- 
nides, was this, that they worshipped 
and honoured the heavenly bodies and 
built temples to them on high places, 
etc. [R. Maimonides seems to take 
Gen, iv, 26, " n Vnpb bmn TN as 
other Hebrews do, to mean — then was 
the calling on the name of God profaned 
—and Targ. Onkelos n«b2jba ibn 
" 2 men fell away from praying in 
the name of the Lord. Targ. Jonathan, 
" That was the age in whose days, men 
began to go astray, who made to them- 
selves idols, and called them by the 
name of the Lord." But the LXX 
read : 'Evwf, ovTog ■^XTritrtv IkikoX- 
fiaOat TO ovofta Kvpiov tov &iov.'] 
(R. Maimonides, Halekot 'Avod. fcoJcav, 
etc. 0pp., vol. i, fol. ed. Amst.) 

R. Abarbanel, however, Comm. in Pent., 
fol. 31, understands it to mean that 
in the days of Enos they began to pray 
in the name of God in all their works, 
becaupe until then, Adam, Abel, and 

Set Vwn ms^sisn D"'-irt£?» vn 

lived in intercourse with God who was 
present among them. 

17 Cain, says Geo. Syncellus ( C/iron., 
p. 19), died the same year as Adam 
(a.m. 930), killed by the stones of his 
house that fell upon him, Xidoic ydp Kai 
avTOQ TOV 'Aj3f\ avtiXt — for himself 
had killed Abel with stones. The 
Kufale, whence this account is taken, 
adds : " that he was thus killed by 
righteous judgment ; for it is decreed 
on the tables of heaven, that with what 
weapon a man slays another, with such 
also shall he be slain." (Kufale, p. 19, 
20.) Cedrenas quotes this legend from 

the mane source, at p. 16 of his Hist. 
Compendium, where he also says, that 
Abel having been righteous, his body 
a(pavic ytyovevai, disappeared [from 
the sight of man] in order to give those 
who came after him a good hope [of 
everlasting life]. 

18 Here follows in the Ethiopictext : 
"Then Lamech stood [or, remained] 
grieved for what he had done ; the 
cattle went away from him into the 
open country, and he knew not what to 
do. But the narrative would be long 
[or, tedious]." Yet the Arabic original 
gives even a longer account, says Dr. 
Trumpp in his note — that Lamech lay 
there a long time, hungry and thirsty, 
not knowing whither to go, blind as he 
was. Then all his people turned out 
to look for him over hill and down 
dale ; and at last found him lying on 
the ground, by the side of the two 
corpses ; himself half-dead from hunger 
and thirst. So they brought him home; 
gathered the cattle together, and having 
covered Cain and the young shepherd 
in gay apparel, they buried them in 
the neighbourhood, as being the first 
of the Cainites that had died, and they 
mourned over them forty days and forty 
nights. Here, however, the Arabic adds 
also, "But the story would be [too] 

In the three hundredth year of Enos, 
Cain the accursed, Adam's son, who 
had slain his brother Abel, was him- 
self slain. For a seventh descendant 
from Cain, called Lamech who was a 
shepherd, shooting an arrow in play, hit 
his ancestor Cain through the heart 
and killed him. For Cain was bewildered 
and wandering in the open country, 
not being able to rest in any one place. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 22.) 

R. S. .Tarchi, in his Comm. on 
Gen. iv, 23, relates this story thus : 
" Lamech's wives had separated them- 
selves from him, for his having slain 




Cain, and Tabal-Cain bis son. For 
Lamech was blind, and was led about 
by Tubal-Cain, who seeing Cain coming 
and looking like a wild beast, told 
Lamech his father, to bend his bow, 
wherewith he killed Cain. When 
Lamech fonnd that it was Cain his 
ancestor, he struck his hands together ; 
but Tnbal-Cain's head happening to be 
between them, he also was killed by 
Lamech. On this account did Lamech 's 
wives leave him. But he quieted them, 
saying, ' Hear ye my voice,' " etc. 
(Comm. ad l, fol. 7, ed. Buxtf.) [The 
same story is also told in Sepher 
ayasha/r, Shalsheleth akkabbafa, etc. 
See Kisenm. Ent. Jud.,\o\. i,p.471.] 

Cedrenus and S. Ephrem (in Gen., 
vol. i, pp. 45 and 143) relate two 
traditions, in substance like the above 
account. It is also given in the Ar- 
menian Desidhyun badmuthyants Asdw. 
Survey of the histories of the books of 
Holy Scripture, vol. i, c. 2, p. 13, Cedrenus, 
however, gives another version of the 
story, and says " that Lamech committed 
two murders — of a man and of a child, 
both of whom were brothers of Enoch, 
who earnestly prayed God not to let 
him see such slaughter, and for that, was 
taken up into heaven." {H. Comp., p. 15.) 

Mid/rash Tankhuma (fol. 6) tells the 
story pretty much as it is in the 
Ethiopic ; but adds that the little boy 
said to Lamech, "I see JT^n yT2^ 
something like a wild beast." Lamech 
shot an arrow and killed it. Then the boy 
seeing Cain with a horn on his forehead, 
lying dead, said, " O father, this beast is 
like a man with a horn on the forehead 1" 
Then Lamech clapped his hands together, 
and so doing, killed the boy. He then 
went home and said to his wives, " I have 
slain a man to my wounding, and a 
young man to my hurt I" Adah and 
Zillah then said, they would no longer 
live with him ; so that Lamech had to 
go with them to Adam for judgment 

1 9 Joseph B. Gorion, being in a certain 
island in the neighbourhood of India, 
" found there men like women, who lived 
on live fish, and who told him they had 
in their island the sepulchre of a very 
ancient king, called Hainan, son of 
Enos, who lived betbre the Flood, and 
ruled the whole world, spirits, demons, 
etc In his wisdom he knew that God 
would bring a flood [and overwhelm the 
earth] in the days of Noah. Wherefore 
he wrote what was to happen after him 
on tables of stone ; and lo they are there; 

nW D^m pN mmb and the 
writing is in Hebrew. And he also 
wrote therein that in his days the 
ocean overwhelmed a third part of the 
world ; and so it happened in the days 
of Enos, the son of Seth, son of Adam 
the first man." {Jos. B. Qorion, lib. 
ii, c. 18.) There seems to be some 
confusion between this legend and the 
one told in a note on Cainan, son of Ar- 
phaxad, to which the reader may refer. 

20 When the death of Cainan drew 
near, he called Mahalaleel and adjured 
him by the blood of Abel, not to let 
one of his children go down from the 
mountain to the children of Cain the 
accursed. All the days of Cainan 
were nine hundred and ten. (Eutych., 
Nazam al-j. p. 22.) 

21 This word is of Arabic origin, and 
is either for the collect, pi. jinnun 
genii, pi. of junnun, a demon, devil ; 
or, it may stand for junnun, folly, 
etc. Anyhow, the " j " being pronounced 
and transcribed "g" by the Ethiopic 
translator, shows that the work was 
done not far from Egypt, where " j " is 
pronounced " g " hard. 

According to Targ. Jonathan, in 
Gen. V, Lamech had three sons, Jabel 
and Tubal, sons of Adah ; and Tubal- 
Cain and his sister Na'amah, children 
of Zillah. One account says that the 
young shepherd slain by Lamech, was 




Zillah's son ; and that for that reason 
she and Adah would no longer live with 
him. Jenan or Genon, might then be 
for Tubal-Cain. 

22 Abulpharaj, however (l>yn. Arab., 
pp. 8, 9) says that, the daughters of 
Cain were reported to have first made 
instruments of music and sung to them : 
wherefore a song is called quinto in 
Syriac, and in Arabic qvmnah means 
a singing girl. 

Cain, says S. Eustath. Antioch (in 
HexaetneroTi,) invented /if rpa Kai araO- 
fjLovQ, Kai opovg, measures, weights and 
the division of land, and the building 
of cities. 

23 Meanwhile the children of Cain 
played on instruments of music, until 
the sound and clamour of them, reached 
unto the top of the Holy mountain. 
Then a hundred men of the children of 
Seth gathered together to go down to 
the children of Cain the accursed. 
Jared then adjured them by the blood 
of Abel, not to go down from the Holy 
mountain ; but they would not hearken 
to him, and went down. And when 
they were come down and saw the 
daughters of Cain the accursed, those 
sons of Seth committed adultery with 
them, and perished in consequence. Of 
these adulteries giants were bom. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., pp. 25, 26.) 

24 Then Enoch the scribe said to 
the Watchers, who had left heaven, and 
had defiled themselves with women, 
after the manner of men : " I have 
written your petition [to the Most 
High], but in my vision I have seen 
that it will not be granted you ; judg- 
ment has been passed on you, and ye 
shall not be. And from henceforth, 
ye shall not go up into heaven, so long 
as the world endures ; for it has been 
decreed that ye shall be bound in the 
earth, all the days of the world. 

" But before this, ye shall behold the 
destruction of your beloved children ; 

ye shall not possess them, but they shall 
fall before you by the sword. And ye 
shall pray for them, bat your prayer 
shall not be heard," etc. (Book of Enoch, 
c. xii — xiv, pp. 7, 8, 9.) 

It was in the four hundredth year of 
Jared, that the Watchers [typ^yoptc] 
went down the Holy mountain and 
begat giants of the daughters of Cain. 
These giants not only were of immense 
size and awful to look at, and given to 
all manner of wickedness, but they also 
invented weapons of war, magic, dyeing 
stuffs, musical instruments, etc., aa 
taught by Azael, one of their chiefs. 
But avToig dpaKovroirodag tivec Trpotr- 
fiyoptvaav, some say they were dragons 
(or, serpents) with feet ; because in 
waging war against the children of 
Seth who were above on the mountain, 
they had to creep on their hands and 
feet, lying flat on the ground, etc. 
(Cedren. Hist. Comp., p. 18.) 

25 But when the sons of Seth who 
had gone down to the daughters of 
Cain the accursed, wished to ascend 
the Holy mountain, the stones of the 
mountain were made fire, so that they 
could find no means of again going up 
the mountain. Then after these, com- 
panies after companies went down from 
the Holy mountain to the daughters 
of Cain the accursed. (Eutych. Nazam 
al-j., p. 26.) 

26 E. Abarbanel (Qusest. vi, Comm. 
in Pent., fol. 31 ) says that "sons of God," 
is explained to mean, kings, princes or 
judges, skilled in knowledge and endued 
with power— or men possessed of divine 
knowledge ; and that the Nephilim 
[said by some to be the same as the 
Anakim] were so called from their 
fall from heaven PD2) into sin, on 

27 And it happened in a certain 
year of this Jubilee (twenty-fifth) that 
angels of God saw the daughters of 
men that they were fair, and took them 




to wives who bare them giants, etc. 
{KuSale, c. v, p. 20.) 

After the death of Adam, Seth ruled 
the race of men then living. Then two 
hundred of his children called Watchers, 
in the one thousandth year of the world, 
four hundredth of Jared, and seven 
hundred and seventieth of Seth, having 
gone astray went down from the moun- 
tain, and took to themselves wives, 
who bare them giants, as Scripture 
says. As some doubt this, adds 
Syncellus, I will bring proofs of it 
from the Book of Enoch, Moses and 
S. Peter the chief of the Apostles. 
(C/iron., p. 19 ; Bar. Heir., pp, 4, 5 ; 
Abulphar. Dyn, Arab., pp. 8.) 

Concerning the Watchers (from the 
Ethiopic Book of Enoch, sect, ii, c. 7). 

" And it happened when the children 
of men multiplied in those days, that 
daughters were bom unto them fair 
and beautiful. And angels, sons of 
heaven saw them, and desiring them, 
said among themselves : ' Come let us 
choose for us wives from among the 
daughters of men, and beget children 
for ourselves.' Then Samyaza, chief 
among them, said : ' I fear lest ye will 
not do this thing, so that the whole 
retribution of this sin fall upon me.' 
And they all answered : ' We will swear 
with an oath and bind one another with 
curses, that we will not turn from this 
deed, but do it amain.' They then 
swore and bound themselves together 
with curses, for this thing. And they 
were two hundred. Then they came 
down to Ardis, which is on the top of 
Mount Hermon, and called it Hermon 
by reason of the oaths and curses 
wherewith they had bound themselves 
[D*in> Tl72~;n] And these are the 
names of their chiefs : 

1. Samyaza, chief 4. Thamiel. 

of all. 5. Bamuel. 

2. Urakibarameel. 6. Dan'el. 

3. Akibeel. 7. Ezekeel. 

8. Saraknyal. 14. SamsaweeL 

9. Asael. 15. SartaeL 

10. Armars. 16. Thurael. 

11. Bathraal. 17. Ynmyael. 

12. Anani. 18. Arazyal. 

13. Zakebe. 

" These were the captains of the two 
hundred, and the rest were with them. 
Every one chose a wife for himself, 
who taught him sorcery, divination, etc ; 
and they brought forth giants, whose 
stature was three hundred cubits, and 
who injured all creatures, devoured 
men and committed such sins aa 
reached unto heaven. Then Michael, 
Raphael, Gabriel, Suryal, and Uriel 
looking down upon the blood shed on 
the earth, addressed the Most High, on 
behalf of men, etc. (c. 8.) 

*' These angels of God, with whom He 
was angry, for their having thus fallen, 
did the Lord command us, says the 
Angel of the Face, to bind into the 
depths of the earth until the Day of 
Judgment." (Kufale, c. v, p. 21.) 

And Syncellus adds from Zosimns 
of Fanopolis, in his book Imuth — that 
these fallen angels taught secret arts, and 
that the first book on the subject was 
called xrifitv, ivQiv nal i} Tixvr} x»?/*£'« 
KaXtirai, whence the art is called 
c?i€OTto=chemistry. {Chron., p. 24.) 

28 But when the death of Jared drew 
near, he called unto him his son Enoch 
and Methuselah the son of Enoch, and 
Lamech the son of Methuselah, and 
Noah the son of Lamech, and said unto 
them: " See that not one of yon go down 
from this Holy mountain ; for your sons 
have erred and have perished. And I 
know that God, powerful and glorious, 
will not leave you on this Holy mountain. 
Therefore whosoever of you shall go out 
of this place, let him take with him the 
body of Adam, and these gifts, and 
place them wherever God shall tell 
him." And all the days Jared lived 
was 962 years. He died when Noah 




was 206 years old, on a Friday about 
sunset, the third day of Adar, which is 
Barmahat Then his son Methuselah, 
Lamech and Noah embalmed him and 
laid him in the Cave of Treasures, 
and mourned for him forty days. 
(Eutych. Nazam. alrj., pp. 29-32.) 

29 Then the Most High spake and 
sent Arsyalalyur to the son of Lamech, 
and said unto him : " Tell (him) in My 
Name : hide thyself. And reveal unto 
him the destruction of all flesh by the 
waters of the Flood, that will come over 
all the earth, and destroy all that is in 
it. And teach him how he may save 
himself and establish his seed in the 
whole earth." 

Then He sent Raphael to bind Aza- 
zeel in the lowest pit, until the Day of 
Judgment ; Gabriel and Michael to 
punish the wicked inhabitants of the 
earth.-^Let all flesh perish. Then after 
it has been cleansed, vines shall be 
planted and bear fruit-^-Peace and 
righteousness shall reign therein, and 
all the sons of men shall be righteous, 
and all nations shall bless Me and do 
Me service, etc. {BooTc of Enoch, c. x, 
p. 6, 6, 7.) 

These are the names of the holy 
angels who watch. 

Uriel, one of the holy angels — over 
thunder and terror. 

Eaphael, one of the holy angels- 
over the spirits of men. 

Eaguel, one of the holy angels — over 
the punishment (restraint) of the world 
and luminaries. 

Michael, one of the holy angels — over 
the good done to men, gives orders to 
the nations. 

Sarakiel, one of the holy angels — 
over the spirits of men, whose spirits 
have transgressed. 

Gabriel, one of the holy angels — over 
Akist (?) Paradise and the Cherubim. 
CBook of Enoch, c. xx, p. 1.3.) 

30 According to Midrash Tankhuma, 

fol. 6, ever since God's curse upon the 
earth, on account of Adam's transgres- 
sion, the ground never yielded the seed 
sown ; but H^^H ^^I^T VH H^H 
D"»2r')p ')"'~l!J"'p1 when they sowed 
wheat they reaped thorns and thistles. 
Therefore did Lamech say, Noah should 
" comfort them concerning their work;" 
for after Noah's birth they reaped what 
they sowed; wheat if they sowed wheat, 
barley if they sowed barley. 

31 I Enoch, scribe of righteousness, 
alone of all the children of men, have 
seen a vision of the end of all things 
(Booh of Enoch, c. xix, p. 13), and have 
received a portion of everlasting life. 
They were a hundred and three para- 
bles which I took up to tell those who 
dwell on the earth, (c. vi, p. 20.) 

In the Coran, sur. xix, and elsewhere 
Enoch is praised as Edris, the name 
given him by Arabic writers. He is so 
called probably from darasa Dm, on 
account of his skill in writing and of 
his learning. (See Hotting. Eist. Or., 
p. 31, sq.; and Maracci., .4Zcor., p. 435.) 
Enoch was the first among men who 
taught writing, science and vrisdom of 
all sorts. He wrote about the signs of 
heaven, years, months, etc., and gave 
laws. He also received visions of all 
that is to happen until the Day of 
Judgment. (Kufale, c. iv, p. 17.) 

The ancient Greeks, says Abulpharaj 
{Byn. Arab., p. 9), thought Enoch was 
Hermes Trismegistus, so called for the 
three great sciences he taught concern- 
ing the three qualities inherent in God : 
(1) His existence ; (2) His wisdom ; and 
(3) His eternal life. The Arabs call 
him Edris. The Sabians say that he 
got his wisdom from Agathodemon, 
that is Setb, the son of Adam ; and 
others think also that Esculapius vras a 
disciple of his, who grieved so much at 
Enoch's departure from this world, that 
he raised a statue of him which was 
worshipped after the Flood ! etc. 




As to the Book of Enoch, that con- 
tains Jade 14, 15, known to Syncellas 
who gives extracts from it, and to 
several of the Fathers, bnt lost sight 
of for centaries — it was discovered by 
Brace in Abyssinia, written in Ethiopic, 
several copies of which he brought to 
Europe. It consists in visions of Para- 
dise, of the coming of the Beloved, 
of the Flood, and of the end of the 
world. It is fall of excellent sentiments 
and pious lore, dating probably from a 
little before the coming of Christ. 

Enoch received thirty leaves of writ- 
ing from heaven, as Adam had received 
thirty-one and Seth twenty-nine. (Ma- 
sadi i, c iii, p. 73.) 

OvTog ■KpGiTOQ ypcLfinara fiavGavti 
Kai SiSdaKtt, Kai Qiiwv fivaTtjpiutv 
d7roKa\v\liib>s d^iovrai. (Cedren. Hist. 
Comp., p. 17.) Adam is also said to 
have written a thousand leaves on the 
property of plants, climate, etc. (See 
Quatremfere's Agricultvra NabathoBorum, 
quoted in Chwolson's Die Ssabier, i, 
pp. 706, 708. 

32 I then inquired of the Angel of 
Peace who was going about with me : 
" For whom are the instruments I see 
prepared?" And he said: "For the 
host of Azazeel, to be delivered to the 
[or, cast under] the lowest condemna- 
tion — Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and 
Phanuel shall be strengthened at that 
time — ^when the Lord of Spirits sends 
forth chastisement — then shall the stores 
of waters that are above the heavens 
burst open, on the fountains of water 
that are on the earth and under the 
earth. Those waters shall then mix 
together as it were in union, and 
shall blot out all that is in the earth, 
unto the borders of heaven. Thus 
shall they be made to know the iniquity 
they have committed in the earth ; and 
thus shall they be punished." {Book of 
Enoch, c. lix., p. 30.) 

" And now Methuselah my son/' said 

Enoch, " I have made known unto thee 
all [that Uriel told me concerning the 
seasons, days, years and stars of heaven]. 
Keep, O Methuselah my son, the books 
of [me] thy father, that thou mayest 
transmit them to generations in the 
world. I have given wisdom to thee and 
to thy children, and to the children 
thou shalt have, that they may give it 
to those that are to come for ever, 
(c. Ixxxii, p. 57.) 

" I have made known to thee, Methu- 
selah my son, all that I saw before thy 
birth; now listen to another vision I 
have had. As I was in the house of 
Mahalaleel, my father-in-law, I saw 
heaven fall upon the earth. And as it 
fell, the earth was suspended in a great 
abyss, mountains upon mountains, hills 
upon hills, great trees were VFrenched 
off their roots [trunks] and were thrown 
in a heap into the abyss. And I cried. 
The earth is destroyed ! Mahalaleel 
heard my cry. I told him the vision. 
My son, said he, the earth will be 
destroyed, in a great overthrow because 
of the sins of men. Now then, arise, 
and pray the Lord that a remnant be 
left," etc. (c. Ixxxiii, pp. 59, 60.) 

33 " And now, Methuselah my son," 
said Enoch, " call together all thy bro- 
thers and all thy mother's sons — for a 
voice calls me ; and my spirit vrithin 
me is troubled, to make known unto 
yon all that shall ever happen to you." 
Then Methuselah brought them to 
Enoch, who said to all his righteous 
children : " Hear, O my children, the 
words of your father — my beloved : 
Love righteousness, and walk therein. 
Approach not right [or, integrity] vrith 
a double heart, and make no fellowship 
with double-hearted men. But walk in 
righteousness, O my children ; for it 
will lead you in good paths. And let 
righteousness be your companion. — 
Hearken unto me, therefore, O my 
children : Walk in the ways of right- 




eonsness, and avoid those of violence ; 
for those who walk therein shall perish 
for ever." (Boofc of Enoch, xci, pp. 74, 

34 "After that^I went up to hea- 
ven," says Enoch, " and I saw the sons 
of holy angels treading on flame of 
fire, whose garments were white and 
their faces brilliant like [hail] crystal. 
And I saw two rivers of fire, like unto 
hyacinth; and I then fell on my face 
before the Lord of Spirits. But Michael 
took me by the hand and raised me up. 
— But I fell again on my face, my 
flesh was dissolved, and my spirit was 
changed ; and I cried with a loud voice 
and great spirit, I blessed, and praised, 
and extolled. And what I did was 
acceptable to the Ancient of Days — 
who came with Michael, Gabriel, Ra- 
phael, and Fhauuel, and thousands of 
angels — one of which came to me and 

said: Thou art the son of a man, born 
for righteousness ; righteousness has 
rested on thee, and the righteousness of 
the Ancient of Days shall not forsake 
thee. And the angel said to me : He 
will give thee peace in His name for 
ever — and it shall be so unto thee for 
ever and ever. — Thus shall be length of 
days with this son of sons of men, and 
peace shall be to the righteous ; His 
right path shall be to them [to follow] 
in the name of the Lord of Spirits, for 
ever." (Book of Enoch, c. Ixxi, pp. 45, 

Sed et Enoch sine circumcisions 
placens Deo, cum esset homo, Dei 
legatione ad Angelos jungebatur, et 
translatus est. (S. Irenseus, Hceres., 
lib. iv, c. 30. See also Fabric. Cod. 
Apoc. V. T., vol. i, p. 160, sq. for other 


1 After a time, said Enoch, my son 
Methuselah, took for his son Lamech, 
a wife who bare him a son, whose body 
was white like hoar-frost, and red like 
the blossom of a rose; the hair of his 
head was white as wool, and as long ; 
he had beautiful eyes, that shone like 
the sun, and lighted up the whole house, 
•when he opened them. No sooner did 
he leave the hands of the midwife, 
than he began to speak to the Lord in 

Then Lamech his father was afraid 
of him, and running, came to his father 
Methuselah, and said unto him: " A son 
is bom unto me, strange and unlike 
other children of men, but like a child 
61 angels of heaven; his nature [crea- 

tion] is different, and is not like us. 
His eyes are like the rays [feet] of the 
sun ; his countenance glorious ; and, 
altogether, he looks as if not born of 
me, but rather of angels ; and I am 
afraid some wonder will be wrought on 
the earth in his days. I beseech thee, 
go and inquire of Enoch, who is in 
heaven, concerning him." 

Methuselah then came and found me 
at the end of the earth, and told me 
what had happened. 

Then I, Enoch, said to him, that in 
the days of that child a great flood 
would destroy the earth, and all the 
inhabitants thereof, except that one and 
his three sons, whose children should 
beget gianta, not spiritual, but carnal, 




etc. And tell Laraech that his son's 
name shall be Noah ; because he shall 
be the one of yon that shall be left after 
you, etc. (Book of Enoch, c. cv, p. 87, 
88.) [Eth. nuah, long. The Hebrew 
etymology is given further on.] 

2 Noah was 600 years old, when 
Methuselah died aged 969 years on a 
Friday, about mid-day, the twenty-first 
of Ilul, which is Thut. Then Noah 
and Shem embalmed him and laid him 
in the Cave of Treasures, and mourned 
for him forty days. There was now no 
one left on the Holy mountain, but only 
Noah with his wife, whose name was 
Haikal, daughter of Namusa, Enoch's 
son, and his three sons, Shem, Ham, 
and Japhet, with their wives, who 
were of the daughters of Methuselah. 
Shem's wife was called Salit ; Ham's 
wife, Nahlat ; and Japhet's wife, 

But when iniquity increased on the 
enrth through the intercourse of the 
children of Seth with those of Cain the 
accursed, and they committed all man- 
ner of wickedness and took to all sorts 
of amusements, God made known to 
Noah, saying, I shall send the Flood 
over the earth and destroy everything 
in it. And He commanded Noah to 
come down the Holy mountain, and to 
build a ship, of square timber (some say 
of the wood of the Indian plane-tree), 
three hundred yards long, fifty broad, 
and thirty high, lined with pitch and 
bitumen both in and out, with three 
stories ; the lower for four-footed 
beasts, the middle for birds, and the 
upper for himself and his family, with 
a door [opening or window] on the 
eastern side, with cisterns for water, 
and places for food. (Eutych. Nasam 
ol-j., pp. 34, 37.) 

3 Philo, QucBst, c. ii, p. 6, Armen. in 
Gen., compares the ark to the human 
body, after whose pattern he thinks it 
was made. It seems that both S. Augus- 

tine (Contra. Faust, 1. xii, c. 39) and 
S. Ambrose {Hexaemer. 1. vi. c. 9) were 
of the same opinion, which they bor- 
rowed from Philo. 

4 And God commanded Noah to 
make a bell (nagits, a flat piece of wood, 
suspended and beaten with a wooden 
clapper, commonly used in the east, to 
call to prayer) three yards long, of the 
wood of the Indian plane (saj), a yard 
and a half broad, with a clapper of the 
same wood. And that Noah should beat 
it three times a day ; in the morning, to 
gather men to their work ; again at 
noon at the hour of dinner ; and again 
in the evening, at the time of parting. 
" And when they hear thee," said God 
to Noah, " beating the bell, and they 
ask thee saying: What is it thou art 
doing ? Tell them, God is about to send 
a flood." (Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 73.) 

It is evident that Eutychus borrowed 
his information from the Arabic copy 
of this book ; for he mentions the sdj 
" Indian plane," or teak tree ; the wood 
of which Noah is said to have built the 
ark, because it does not rot [or, is not 
attacked by worms], but is passed over 
by the Ethiopic translator, who pro- 
bably did not understand the term, 
as suggested by Dr. Trumpp, for he 
hereby rendered it " ebony." 

Dionysins Bar Salibi in his Pushoqo 
d'qv/rovo, or " Exposition of the Liturgy," 
ch. iv, asks whence comes noqusho, the 
wooden clapper or bell beaten to call 
people to church, or the small brass 
bell rung, during the service : " We 
answer," says he, " that it is written in 
many histories, that when God com. 
manded Noah to build the ark. He also 
told him to make a bell ; which was 
beaten in the morning to gather work- 
men to their work at the ark ; then at . 
noon, for them to enjoy their meal ; 
and again in the evening, for them to 
rest from their work." (Asseman, Bibl. 
Or., vol. ii, p. 179.) 




5 God raised Noah a preacher of 
righteoasness in those days; whose words 
were hard {i.e., as clear) as torches. 
He said to them : " Bepent, or the 
Flood will overwhelm you." But they 
laughed at him — That old man of the 
ark I and said : " A flood 1 whence will 
it come ? If it is of fire, we have a 
thing called THrbV, Alitha, that will 
save us from it. If it is a flood of 
waters, fi-om the earth, we have iron 
plates [or, hoes] wherewith to dig ; and 
if it comes from the heaven, we have a 
thing called 31p27, a sponge, to soak it 
up." Then he said to them : " It will 
come from between the soles of your 
feet." [With a play on ^pV or mp^? 
a sponge, and Dpy sole or heel, of the 
foot, etc.] Talmud Bab., Sanhedr., p. 

6 According to the Talmud and to 
Jewish Rabbis, Og, king of Bashan, 
was one of these giants who had escaped 
drowning in the Flood, by being shut up 
in a box with a unicorn, or by sitting 
on the top of the ark, and fed by Noah. 
(Targ. Jonathom in Gen. xiv.) Others 
say he was the same Eliezer, Abraham's 
servant, whom he used to cover with 
the palm of his hand, etc. But in the 
Targnm of Jonathan B. Uzziel, on 
Numb, xxi, 36, we read that : Og seeing 
the camp of the Israelites three miles 
long, went and fetched a mountain of 
that size, to throw it upon the camp. 
Upon which the Word of God T> ]1D 
sSnt 7"'113T prepared at once a snail 
[or, worm] that ate a hole through the 
mountain ; so that Og's head passed 
through it [the mountain resting on 
his shoulders]. He then tried to get it 
out: but his teeth having grown on 
each side of his month, he could not do 
so. Moses then took a hatchet ten 
cubits long, and smote him in the heel, 

7 It is said in the Law that Sons 
of God (called Beni Elohim), when 

they looked upon the beautiful dangh> 
ters of Cain, came down to them; 
whence giants were bom. But he 
errs, and knows not what he is saying, 
who tells us that angels came down to 
daughters of men (lit. of the flesh). 
But they were the sons of Seth who 
came down from the Holy mountain to 
the daughters of Cain the accursed, for 
the sons of Seth were called Beni 
Elohim, or sons of God, by reason of 
their purity, and so long as they dwelt 
on the Holy mountain. They err then, 
who say that angels came down to the 
daughters of men (lit. of the flesh) ; for 
the essence of angels is simple [or, single] 
and their nature is in no need of 
marriage. Man, however, is composite 
in his nature, who requires marriage, 
like other animals. If angels had inter- 
course with daughters of men, not 
one of them would remain a Tirgin. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 26.) 

8 God commanded Noah to make a 
ship, and when it was finished, Gabriel 
brought the coffin containing the bones 
of Adam, which was laid in the ark. 
(Masudi i, ch. iii, p. 74.) 

Eutychus puts the following words 
in the mouth of Lamech, who, when 
dying, in the five hundred and fifty- 
ninth year of Noah, said unto him : 
"God, the mighty and glorious, will 
not leave thee on this mountain. W^hen, 
therefore, thou shalt go down, take 
with thee the body of Adam, and bring 
with thee the three offerings, namely, 
the gold, the myrrh, and the incense. 
Then command thy son that after thy 
death he take the body of our father 
Adam, and lay it in the middle of the 

" Then appoint from among thy 
sons one man to minister there ; a man 
devoted to God all the days of his life; 
without a wife ; who shall shed no 
blood, and bring no offering, neither 
bird nor beast, but only bread and 




vine ; for from thence shall come the 
sal ration of Adam [or, of man]. His 
raiment sliall be of the skin of wild 
beasts ; he shall not shave his hair, 
neither pare his nails ; but remain 
alone ; for he shall be called priest 
of God, that is, Melchizedec." After 
giving these commandments to his son 
Noah, Lamech died on a Sunday, at 
snnset, the nineteenth of Adar, which 
is Barmahat ; Noah then embalmed 
him, and laid him in the Cave of 
Treasures, and they mourned for him 
forty days. (Entych. Nazam al-j., p. 

9 The apocryphal history of Mel- 
chizedec found among the writings of 
S. Athanasius (vol. ii, p. 7, sq.) tells us 
that "there was a queen of Salem whose 
son was called Salaad." This Salaad had 
a son called Melchi, and Melchi having 
married a wife called Salem, had by her 
two sons, Melchi and Melchizedec. 

Melchizedec, who was an idolater, 
was brought to the knowledge of the 
true God, by beholding the starry 
heavens and the works of nature. He 
then renounced his idols ; and, leaving 
his home to avoid the sacrifice of his 
brother to the seven planets, went up 
Mount Tabor, where he prayed God to 
destroy all those who had slain and 
sacrificed his brother to idols. Upon 
this the earth suddenly opened, and 
swallowed up the whole of Melchizedec's 
family. Therefore is he said to be 
airarotp, afiijrwp, ayiviaXoytfTog. He 
then continued seven years to live in 
a thick forest on Mount Tabor, almost 
naked, until his back became tDcnl Sspfia 
XtXiivijQ, like the back of a tortoise. 

Then Abraham went to fetch him ; 
pared his nails, and clothed him in 
pontifical vestments. Melchizedec then 
blessed Abraham, and gave him 
vOTtjpiov aKparov Kal KXdtTfta aprov 
Kai Tip Xaifi avrov rtti, a cup of pure 
wine and a morsel of bread, to him and 

to the three hundred and eighteen men 
who were with him. This is the figure 
of the holy Eucharist, and of the three 
hundred and eighteen fathers assembled 
at the Council of Nicasa. Melchizedec 
also is taken for the Son of God, bnt 
not tls Ttjv xapiv, as to spiritual 

Gregory of Dathev, a celebrated 
Armenian divine of the fourteenth 
century, seems to liave known this 
tradition. In his book (Kvrk hartsmants, 
c. xvii, p. 300, ed. Const.) he says : 
"Melchizedec's father was called Melchi, 
and his mother, Sala ; and they dwelt 
at Salem. From his birth he was 
consecrated to idols ; but he was 
carried away by an angel to Mount 
Tabor, and fed there, until he was 
grown up. One day a cloud descended 
upon the mountain, and a hand stretched 
out of the cloud, ordained him priest 
saying : " Melchizedec, without father, 
mother or kindred, and like unto the 
Son of God ; " because having been 
taken from his parents when quite a 
child, he had grown unlike them, not 
knowing them, and unknown to them. 
His dwelling was on Mount Golgotha 
where he sowed wheat with his own 
hands and made his own wine. So 
that when Abraham met him, he 
brought out to him some unleavened 
bread still warm, and some wine ; a 
figure of the Lord's Supper. 

"Bnt why does S. Ephrem in hia 
writings, say that Melchizedec was 
Shem?" asks Gregory. And he answers: 
" He had not two names neither is he a 
different person. But Irinos (Irenaens ?) 
gives the reason which is difficult 
to understand. Noah blessed Shem, 
but Shem had no son like himself to 
bless. Abraham, however, was of the 
family of Shem, and worthy of a 
blessing. But Shem was not then 
living, to bless him ; and Terah could 
not bless. So Melchizedec took Sbem's 




place and did what Shem wonid have 
done, he blessed Abraham, and was 
called Shem." 

The passage in S. Ephrem (0pp. 
Syr., vol. i, c. xiii, p. 60) runs thus : 
" Melchizedec was Shem. He was 
king by reason of his power as the head 
of fourteen tribes. He was also priest, 
having received the priesthood in due 
order [or, course h'yuvolo} from Noah. 
Not only was he living in the days of 
Abraham, but he also saw Jacob and 
Esau, and was consulted by Rebecca, as 
to the children she was then bearing. 

To this S. Chrysostom (Horn, xxxv 
in Gen.) says that Melchizedec was 
i(TWQ aiToxapoToi'jjTog oiJrw yap jjffaj/ 
TOTE 01 itpilg, perhaps self-ordained as 
priests were in those days ; or by 
reason of his old age ; or, may be, he 
had practised the offering of sacrifices 
like Abel, Noah, Abraham, etc. Mar- 
cus Eremita (^Opusfi. x, de Melchizedec), 
borrows from S. Athanasins, and agrees 
with his account, of the three hundred- 
and eighteen men who were with 
Abraham, that they were a figure 
of the three hundred and eighteen 
patriarchs, who on Christ's side, iv ry 
N«Katwv TToXti aTrodToKiKuiQ oTrXiaafii- 
voi irpoTTuxravTO rag aipetreig, and in 
apostolic armour, put to flight heresies, 
when assembled at Nicaea. And so 
also wrote S. Ambrose. ( Fide 
lib. i, prolog, and de Pair. Ahrahamo, 
lib. i, c. 3.) 

10 R. Meir O. Gabbai, in Avod. 
haqqpdesh iii, fol. 80 (quoted in Eisenm. 
vol. i, p. 318) found in the Midrash that 
R. Jukhanan taught, that God took 
Shem the son of Noah, and Itt^'^IDm 
"imC^b lVb37 insb set him apart 
for Priest of the Most High, to minister 
before His Shekinah ; and then changed 
his name to Melchizedec ; and that his 
brother Japhet had learnt the law in 
his school. And R. Bekhai (fiiwr. fol. 
24) says of Melchizedec, king of Salem, 

n3 p CO? nt " he is Shem, the son of 

Tradunt Hebraei hunc esse Sem, 
primam filium Noe, et eo tempore quo 
ortus est Abraham, habuisse antiquitatis 
annos ccxc. Nee esse novom si Mel- 
chizedech victori Abraham obviam 
processerit — et benedixerit ei quod 
ab nepote suo jure patemitatis dederit, 
etc. Salem etiam, Hiernsalem esse 
plurimi arbitrantur, quod absurdum est. 
Non enim invia Abrahae Hierusalem 
erat, sed oppidum in metropoli Sichem, 
dequa in Evangelio legimus. (S. Am- 
brose in 3pist. ad Hebr., c. vii.) 

See Apophthegmata Patrwn, c. viii, 
in Eccles. Oroec. Monumenta, ed. Coteler, 
vol. i, p. 423, for an account of a monk 
of the desert who believed Melchizedec 
to have been the Son of God. The 
matter was referred to S. Cyril of 
Alex, who rebuked him for it. 
Meanwhile the monk had a revelation 
of all the patriarchs from Adam ; when 
he saw that Melchizedec was indeed a 
man. (For the sect of the Melchizedek- 
ians, see S. Epiph. Eoeres. xxxv, vol. i ; 
and J. Damascen, Hmres. Iv. in Cotel. 
Eccl. QrcBC. Mon. vol. i, p. 295.) 

1 1 Then Noah went into the Cave of 
Treasures and embraced the body of 
Seth,of Enos,of Cainan, of Mahalaleel, 
of Jared, of Methuselah and of Lamech. 
Then he took the body of Adam, and 
also the offerings : Shem carried the 
gold. Ham the myrrh, and Japhet the 
incense. (Eutych. Nazamal-j., p. 37.) 

1 2 And as they came down the Holy 
mountain, they lifted up their eyes and 
wept, saying : " Farewell (lit. peace on 
thee) O thou sacred Paradise I " Then 
they kissed the stones and embraced the 
trees of the Holy mountain and came 
down. ( Eutych. A'^ozam al-j., p. 37.) 

13 Then Noah went into the ark, he, 
his wife, his sons and their wives, and 
Noah carried the body of Adam and 
laid it in the middle of the ark, and the 




offerings (of gold, incense and myrrh) 
upon it. Then he and his sons occupied 
the eastern side of the ark, and his wife 
and his sons' wires, the western side ; 
lest they shonld come together. (Eutych. 
Nazam alj., p. 38.) 

1 4 And God said unto Noah : " Fasten 
into the ark precious stones and pearls, 
to lighten you up as in mid-day." (Tal- 
mud Bab. SanhedA"., p. 176.) 

And God said to Noah : " Go to 
Phison, and choose from thence a 
precious stone [Sim"*, Pers. juwar, 
a * gem,' also a • pearl '] and fix it in 
the ark, in order to give you light." 
(Targ. Jonathan in Gen. vii.) 

15 InBeresWtft,Eabba?i(adloc.)weare 
told that Mount Gerizim was not covered 
with the waters of the Flood ; because it 
is but a small mountain ; and only the 
highest mountains are said to have been 
covered 1 S. Eustathius Antiochenus, 
however, mentions in his Hexa'emeron 
(col. 752, ed. M.) that petrified shells 
and fishes were found on the top of 
Mount Lebanon, in proof that the waters 
of the flood had reached and covered the 
highest summits of that chain. 

16 On the seventeenth day of Ilul, 
which is Thut, the seventh month 
(according to the reckoning of the 
Christians of Egypt), the ark rested 
on the mountains of Ararat, that is 
Djebel el-Djudi, near Mosul, in the 
country of Diarabia, near a town called 
Korda ; but it is now called the land of 
Thamanim and Djezire Ben Omar. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 41.) 

Quotations from the Assyrian accounts 
of the Flood, as well as from the Pehlevi 
Bundehesh [or, Creation] would be out 
of place here. But they are well worth 
the study of all who take interest in 
these matters. 

The mountain on which the ark 
rested, is generally called Mount Ararat. 
But " Ararat " is the name of one of 
the provinces of Armenia, and is the 

Hebrew term for Armenia. The Ar- 
menians themselves, call that mountain 
Mount Masis. (See for a learned 
treatise on this subject, and for the 
many names of the mountain, Injidjean, 
Armen. Qeogr., vol. i, p. 54, sq.) 

17 From the day this world was 
destroyed by fire, to the day it was 
destroyed by water, 100,000 years 
elapsed. Then 8000 years later, a 
voice came to me : " Build an ark." 
He then got builders, and cut cedars in 
Haran and in Lebanon, and was three 
hundred years building the ark, three 
hundred yards long, fifty broad, and 
thirty in height ; wherein he gathered 
animals of all kinds, male and female. 
Then the fountains of heaven and earth 
broke forth — and the ark after floating 
on the waters eleven months, rested 
on the mountains of Kardun. \_Kardu, 
Targ.Onfe. Carducei M. in Ararat.] Then 
Noah sent forth a raven, saying to it : 
" Go and see if the flood has abated." 
The raven went, found a carcase on 
which it began to feed, and forgot 
Noah's order. Then Noah sent forth 
a dove, saying to it : "Go and see if 
the flood is assuaged, and where the 
raven is I sent forth before thee." The 
dove went forth, found the raven feed- 
ing on a carcase ; and then brought 
back a branch of olive to Noah, who 
then knew that the flood had abated. 
Then Noah cursed the raven, but 
blessed the dove. Thus was the race 
of his son Shem and of his wife 
Nnraito preserved ; and by them was the 
earth peopled, etc. ( Cod. Nasar. iii, p. 72.) 
Bar. Hebraeus Syr. (p. 7) says that 
the ark rested at Apamsea, chief city of 
Pisidia [of which there exists coins 
with the ark and the dove. Bryant. 
Ane. Myth., vol. iii, p. 47, sq.] ; but 
Bar. Hebraeus Arab., says, with the 
Targum, Cod. Nasar., and the Coran, 
that it rested on Mount Kardu, or Jnda 
[now called Dshudi] of Ararat or 




Armenia. [This agrees with Scripture ; 
and seems most likely, from the situa- 
tion of those mountains as regards the 
plain at Shinar — Sinjar— where the first 
families settled after the Flood. The 
Kufale calls Lnbar the mountain on 
which the ark rested ; and the Sama- 
ritan Pentateuch (Gen. viii, 4) says it 
rested in Serandib, or Ceylon.] 

18 The dove is a figure of the Holy 
Ghost, says S. Ephrem (vol. i, p. 149.) 
Her finding no resting place for her 
foot, the first time, represents the 
wickedness of men's manners among 
which the Holy Ghost finds no resting 
place. The second time the dove went 
forth, figures the coming of Christ, and 
the shedding forth of the Holy Ghost ; 
while the olive branch is an emblem of 
our reconciliation with God the Father. 
The raven is of the devil. [See the 
original for a very fair explanation of 
the rainbow.] 

19 Cedrenus alluding to the floods of 
Ogyges in Attica and of Deucalion in 
Thessaly says, that the Egyptians made 
mention of the flood of Deucalion, 
declaring that it had not reached them ; 
and rightly too, says Cedrenus tottikos 
ydp ytyovtv ovTog 6 KaraKXvtTfiog tov 
yap irporepov ijTot tov kuOoXikov 
KaraxXvafibv oiick yiviaoKovaiv for that 
flood was local ; and they could have no 
knowledge of the universal deluge, for 
their ancestor was not yet born. For 
Ham, son of Noah, was father of 
Mitsraim, whence are the Egyptians. 
(Eist. Comp., p. 26.) 

One shows still on Mount Djudi the 
spot on which the ark rested, says 
Masudi [but so do Armenians the same, 
on Mount Masis, or Ararat]. Then 
the earth was commanded to absorb the 
waters; some portions of the earth were 
slow at obeying God, other portions did 
so at once. Those that obeyed, yield 
fresh water when dug ; the disobedient, 
were paoished by God, by remaining 

salt. So that the seas are the remnant 
of the waters in which the families [of 
the earth] perished. (Masudi i, c. iii, 
p. 76.) 

And on the seventh month, Nisan, 
the ark rested on the mountains of 
Eadron ; the name of one mountain ia 
Kardania, and of the other, Armenia ; 
and there was the city of Armenia built, 
in the land of the east— so says Targ. 
Jonathan in Gen. viii. 

So says also Abnlfeda Oeogr. Arab., 
p. 69, and El-kaswini, 'Ajaib, vol. i, p. 
156, that remnants of the ark were 
still to be seen on Mount Djudi, 
whither people went on pilgrimage, and 
whence they brought wood of the ark. 

20 S. Ephrem (vol. i, p. 54, 150) 
repeats this, which he rests on Gen. vii, 
7, literally taken. But B. Jochanan 
says that three disobeyed Noah's order 
in this respect : the dog, the raven, and 
Ham, all of which were punished. The 
dog) by the leash ; the raven, by con- 
tempt ; and Ham, in his skin. (Talm. 
Bab. Sanhedrin, p. 216.) 

21 And when they were come out of 
the ark, they built themselves a city and 
called it Thamanin, according to their 
number, for (said they) " we are eight" 

And the sons of Noah planted a vine, 
and gave of the wine to their father, 
etc. (Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 43.) 

22 Nwt iipvTtvaiv afintXiUva iv opti 
Aou/Sdv T^f 'ApfiEviaQ. (Cedrenus, 
Eist. Comp., p. 21, A.M. 2251.) [Ararat, 
the name of a province of Armenia, 
and the Hebrew name for Armenia — 
bounded in the south by the Mountains 
Kardu, on which the ark most probably 
rested. They form the chain of moun- 
tains, north of the Plain of Shinar.] 
(See In j id jean Geogr. of Armenia, in 
Armenian, vol. i, p. 54.) 

23 There are three, says Midr. Tank- 
hvma, fol. 12, who, by their connection 
with the land, made it ]"*b"in common 
[or, unclean] Cain, Noah and Uzziab. 




When Noah was planting the vine, 
Satan stood by him, and asked him 
what he was doing. "Planting the 
Tine," answered Noah. " What is the 
good of it?" asked Satan. "The 
fruit thereof is soft and sweet, whether 
fresh or dry, and they make of it * wine, 
that maketh glad the heart of man ' as 
it is written." " Let me have a hand in 
it, and let us do it together," said 
Satan. And by and by, he brought 
a Iamb under the vine and slew it 
there ; likewise a lion, and also a swine. 
Thereby meaning that a man who was 
as meek as a Iamb, is made furious by 
wine, or that he who drinks in modera- 
tion (as it becometh him) is made 
strong thereby, and he that drinks too 
much revels in filth like a swine. 

In the third year after oomisg oat of 
the ark, says S. Ephrem, did Noah sow 
vine, men kamshune daphkoshto, with 
stones of raisins [or, dried grapes] which 
he had stored up as provisions with 
him in the ark. It would then take 
the vine three or four years to bear 
fruit ; BO that Noah drank of the wine 
thereof, probably in the sixth or seventh 
year after the waters of the Flood were 
assuaged. {Ibid. vol. i, p. 56.) 

According to the Kufale (c. vii, pp. 
29, 30) Noah planted the vine first on 
Mount Lnbar, on which the ark rested, 
one of the mountains of Ararat. Then 
Ham, after Noah's eurse on him, severed 
himself from the rest and built a city, 
called after his wife, Nehelata-mek. 
Japhet, jealous of him, also built a cdty, 
called after his wife, Adatenases ; and 
Shem did the same, and built a city 
which he called Sedukatelbab, also after 
his wife. These three cities are all 
near Mount Lubar, east, west and 
south. [Noah's city, "Semanan" is 
" Shamanin," " eight." It is mentioned 
by Abulfeda Qeogr. Arab., p. 69.] 

Josephus (^Ant. Jud., lib. i, c. iii, p. 5) 
sa-js, *'that the place where the ark 

rested, and whence Noah descended, 
is called 'Airofiartjptov, and is shown 
by the inhabitants." And Mich. 
Tchamich in his History of Armenia, 
vol. i, p. 56, says, that the ark having 
rested on a mountain of Ararat [a 
province of Armenia, so called], 
that is on Mount Masis (^rb Mdaiov, 
Strab. Qeogr., libi xii, c. ii), Noah 
made ilr istehevan his descent near 
it ; there he settled his sons, and 
called the name of the city 'NakhAst- 
chevan, the "first descent," or accord- 
ing to others, Nakh-tohwam, "first 
departure," or migration. (See also 
Idjidjean, Qeogr. of Armenia, vol. i, 
p. 54, sq.) 

And Epiphan. Eceres, lib. i, c. 1, p. 4, 
speaking of the ark, says, it rested 
i-v opetTt Tolf 'Apapdr dvd fiitrov 
'Apfitviitiv Kai KapSvkutv iv rt^ Aovjidp 
opti KaXovfiivtp — and that the settle- 
ment was there, npoabi- /3aipovrtc diro 
Tov Aovfiup opovg, Kai opiuv rqj 
'Apfitvias — yivovrat Iv iriSi^ ^ivva- 
dp, tvOd irov eTreXk^avTC. 

'RXi^arov ravvntjKsc opog, 'Apapdr 
5k Koktirau (_Orae. Sibyll^ p. 152.) 

And Berosus (ed. Richter, p. 66, sq.) 
telling how Xisuthms having been 
divinely warned to build himself a ship 
— length five stadia^breadth two stadia 
— wherein to escape the Flood, lie, 
his wife, children and all animals, 
etc., adds that the ship stood fast iv 
rr} 'Ap^iviq. In- fitpog rr (^avn)v') Iv 
TDtf Koptvaiittv opiai- Tr)Q 'Apfttviag 
SiafitvHv — in Armenia, a portion of 
the ship still remained on the-Cordyaean 
Mountains, whence people brought 
away some of the asphalte, op bitumen 
wherewith the ship was lined, etc. 
See also Josephus (Ant. Jvd., lib. i, c. 
iii, p. 6) who quotes a passage from 
Nicholas Damascenup, concerning Mount 
Baris [».«., /3dpt(, an ark or boat] 
in Armenia, whither many fled for 
safety at the time of the Flood, and 





where one landed in a ship, the wood 
of which remained there a long time. 
Perhaps it is the one mentioned by 
Moses. (See also Nicolas Dam. Uisto- 
riarum fragm., etc., ed. Jo. Conradus 
Orellius, Lips., p. 123.) 

"We know," says Cedrenus {Bist. 
Comp., p. 20), "that Mount Ararat Iv 
Ty Tlap9t(f rfjc 'Apftcvias ilvat, is in 
the Parthian province of Armenia; 
some say in KtXaiVatf r^e ^pvy'iaQ 
in the Celaense of Phrygia." [Legend 
of Apamsea Kibotos.] 

24 According to the Kufale (c. vii, 
p. 31), in the twenty-eighth Jubilee, 
Noah began to give his laws and 
precepts to his children's children, with 
right and judgment, and adjured them 
to practise righteousness, to cover the 
shame of their bodies, to bless their 
Creator, to honour their father and 
mother, to love their neighbour, and 
to keep themselves from all adultery, 
defilement, and violence. For it was 
on account of this that God had 
overwhelmed the earth with the Flood. 
[These are the precepts which alone 
were binding on the proselytes of the 
Gate, or sojourners, among the Israelites. 
Maimonides, Melakim, c. xiv, vol. ir, 
p. 300, ed. fol. Amst.] 

According to Avodath haqqodesh iii, 
fol. 80 (quoted in Eisenmenger, vol. i, 
p. 318), albeit the law was created 
before the world, yet it had so far 
been forgotten, and was likely to be 
forgotten still so much more through 
the wickedness and troubles that were 
before the Flood, that God decreed to 
give as few and as short command- 
ments as possible ; so as to be easily 
remembered. Noah had learnt these 
commandments at school under Seth, 
and handed them down to his sons. 

25 When the death of Noah drew 
near he called secretly his son Shem 
and commanded him saying : " Take out 
of the ark, unknown to any one, the 

body of Adam ; and take with thee 
bread and wine as provision by the 
way; then take with thee Melchizedec 
the son of Phaiek, and go and lay the 
body of Adam where the angel of God 
shall show you. Then command Mel- 
chizedec to settle in that place ; not to 
take him a wife; but to devote himself 
to the service of God all the days of his 
life; for God has chosen him to minister 
before Him. He shall not build for 
himself a house, neither shall he shed 
the blood of either beast, bird, or other 
living thing ; neither shall he bring 
there any other offering to God than 
bread and wine. His raiment shall be 
skins of wild beasts [or, of a lion] ; he 
shall not shave his hair, nor pare his 
nails ; but he shall remain alone [or, 
single] as priest of the Most High. 
And the angel of God will go with 
you two (lit. between you two) until ye 
come to the place where ye shall bury 
the body of Adam. And know thou 
that that place is the middle of. the 
earth. (Eutych, Nazam al-j., p. 45.) 

26 The Kufale makes Noah divide 
the earth by lot, among his sons. He 
rejoiced over the lot fallen to Shem, in 
fulfilment of his blessing on him, because 
his possession which was to be for ever, 
reached unto the River Gihon and the 
Garden of Eden, taking in the most 
holy places on earth. Mount Zion, 
Mount Sinai, and the Garden of Eden, 
where the Lord dwelt. {Ibid. c. viii, 
pp. 36, 73.) 

And the three sons of Noah, divided 
the lot of their inheritance, among their 
children, in presence of Noah their 
father, who adjured them with a curse, 
not to seek another inheritance than 
that which had fallen by lot to them, 
and they all said, laikun walaikwn, So 
be it, and so be it I {Ibid. c. ix, p. 40.) 

Soon after wicked spirits, or devils, 
began to lead astray the children of 
Noah, that were bom in the earth. He 




then prayed to God, who commanded 
ns, said the Angel of the Face, to bind 
them for ever. But the Prince of the 
Spirits, Mastema, stood before the Lord, 
and prayed that He would leave him 
some spirits of his race whereby to 
deceive and harass the children of men. 
So the Lord granted him one-tenth part 
of his spirits ; and the rest he sent to 
the place of judgment. Then we taught 
Noah the use of remedies and the art of 
healing; and he gave all his writings to 
his son Shem, whom he loved most. 
{Ktifale, c. X, pp. 41, 42.) 

But whereas Ham, Cush and Mits- 
raim, took possession of the land fallen 
to them by lot, Canaan took with 
violence possession of the land he 
coveted, along the sea-shore. His 
brothers remonstrated with him, and 
told him he would be accursed for 
having taken a lot that belonged to 
Shem and had not fallen to him. But 
he would not hearken to them; and 
dwelt in the land from Hamath to 
jEgypt. (Jhid. pp. 44, 45.) 

Bar. Hebr. Syr., p. 9, attributes this 
to all the sons of Ham. 

27 Noah died nine hundred and fifty 
years old. According to the reckoning 
of the LXX, there are two thousand 
two hundred and forty-two years from 
the Creation to the Flood ; according to 
the Jews, sixteen hundred and six; and 
according to the Samaritans, thirteen 
hundred and seven, which reckoning is 
entirely wrong; in that it makes Noah 
to have lived two hundred and twenty- 
three years with Adam, whereof nothing 
is said, either by God or by His pro- 
phets. According to the reckoning of 
Abinanns [Anianus?] of Alexandria, 
however, from the creation of Adam 
and the night of the Friday on which 
the Flood began, there were two thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty-six years, 
one month, twenty-three days, and four 
hours. (Abulpharaj, Byn. Arab., p. 14.) 

28 It is commonly reported, says 
Abulpharaj (Byn. Arab., p. 15), that 
Noah just before his death gave Shem 
a commandment saying : •' When I am 
dead, bring the coffin of our father 
Adam out of the ark, and take with 
thee of thy children, Melchizedec, for he 
is priest of the Most High God, and go 
with him and the coffin to the place, 
whither the angel of the Lord will lead 
you." Those two did according ta 
this commandment ; and the angel 
brought them to the hill of Beth-el- 
Maqdes [or, Muqaddas] and Melchizedec 
laid the coffin on the hill, and settled 
there; but Shem went back to hi» 

Melchieedec, however, did not go 
back, but built there the city of 
Jerusalem, which means the City of 
Peace (whence himself is also called 
Melek Salem, that is King of Peace); 
and he spent the rest of his days in 
devotion to the service of God ; he 
never drew near a woman ; never shed 
blood ; and his offering [qorban] was 
of bread and wine only. But as Holy 
Scripture, speaking of his exalted state, 
mentions neither his birth nor his 
death, the holy Apostle Paul says of 
him that he had " neither beginning of 
days, nor end of life." He was made 
a type of Christ in David's prophecy. 
" Thou art a priest for ever, after the 
order of Melchizedec." On the very 
same hill on which our father Adam 
was buried, was Christ also crucified. 

Melchizedec is called Lamech, Noah's 
grandson, by Masudi, who adds that 
those who believe the Scripture, think 
Lamech is still living ; because God 
said to Shem that he to whom He 
should entrust the body of Adam, 
would live for ever. And Shem, 
after having laid Adam's body in the 
centre of the earth, left it in charge 
of Lamech. (Masudi i, ch. iii, pp. 





29 And Fhalek begat Melchizedec 
the priest. Then Shem did according 
to what Noah had commanded him ; 
he went into the aik by night, and 
brought out the body of Adam ; no one 
being aware of it. He then called his 
brothers and said to them : " My father, 
indeed, did command me before his 
death, that I go forth until I arrive at 
the sea, and see how the land lies and 
the rivers and valleys thereof ; then 
that I return to you. I will, therefore, 
leave with you my wife and children; 
and take care of them until my return." 

Then Shem said to Phalek : " Give 
me thy son Melchizedec, to be a help to 
me on my journey." Then Shem took 
with him the body of Adam and Mel- 
chizedec, and departed. And the angel 
of God met them, and did not depart 
from between them until he had led 
them to the middle of the earth, and 
showed them the spot. When they 
alighted the body of Adam upon it, 
the earth opened itself ; Shem and 
Melchizedec laid the body into the place 
that had thus opened itself ; and it 
closed itself again. And the name of 
that is El-jaljala, that is, Cranium 
(Golgotha). (Eutych. Nazam dlrj., p. 

30 On this day — third of Epagumente 
— we commemorate the death of Mel- 
chizedec. This Melchizedec was the 
son of Cainan, son of Shem. And when 
he was fifteen years old, God com- 
manded Noah to send Shem his son, 
with the body of our father Adam, and 
to lay it in the middle of the earth, 
which is Cranin [Cranium, Golgotha] ; 
and told him how the Saviour of the 
world should come, be sacrificed there, 
and redeem Adam with His blood. 

Then Shem took Melchizedec from 
bis father's house, and hid (him), and 
brought him hither, whither the Angel 
of the Lord brought them ; and Mel. 
chizedec was consecrated priest, and 

took twelve stones, and oflFered on them 
a sacrifice of bread and wine, that came 
down to him from heaven in his sight 
(lit. he seeing), the mystery of a new 
(covenant) law. A r gels also brought 
him food ; and his raiment was of skins 
with a leathern girdle. And he con- 
tinued to minister before the body of 
our father Adam. And when Abraham 
returned from his victory over the 
kings, Melchizedec offered him bread 
and wine ; and Abraham also gave 
him tithe of all. And he was called 
priest and king of Salem. (Melchizedec, 
in Dillmann's Chrestom. MtMojp., p. 16.) 

31 Our Rabbis of blessed memory, 
saysR. Abarbanel ( Com. in Pent., fol. 46) 
and R. Abendana (in Leqet Shecha, fol. 
6) are of opinion that Melchizedec is 
Shem, the son of Noah, He is called, 
Melchizedec, that is king of Jerusalem, 
for Jerusalem is Zedec (righteousness), 
because it makes righteous its inhabi- 
tants. Beresh. Raiiah, fol. 47, and 
Yedei Moshe, ad 1. add that Melchizedec 
was bom already circumcised. 

See S. Epiphanius {Adv. Boer,, vol. i, 
p. 468, sq.) for his refutation of the sect 
of Melchizedechians, who worshipped 
Melchizedec instead of Christ. S. 
Epiphanius says he has crushed them 
wtTTTtp ftvoyaWiSiov \iQt^ iriTraiKOTtc, 
" like a young shrewmouse struck with 
a stone.'' (p. 476.) 

32 Then Shem gave Melchizedec the 
commandment he had received from 
Noah, and said unto him : " Abide here, 
and be priest of God : for God has 
chosen thee to minister before Him. 
And His angel shall come, down to thee 
at all times." Then Shem went back 
to his brothers ; and when Phalek asked 
him what had become of the youth 
Melchizedec, Shem answered, that he 
was dead, and that he had buried him. 
And they were much grieved at it. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 50.) 

34 Arphaxad took to wife Rasuya, 




daughter of Susan, daughter of Elam, 
who bare him a son, Cainan. This 
Cainan, taught letters by his father, 
while looking for a place where to build 
a city [Haran], found an inscription on 
stone, the work of the Watchers, wherein 
was recorded the course of heavenly 
bodies, etc. ; but he hid the discovery 
from Noah. (Kufale, c. viii, p. 34.) 
Abulpharaj (Dyn. Syn., p. 7, 8 ; Arab., 
p. 15) remarks that Cainan, who lived 
four hundred and thirty years, is not 
reckoned in the Hebrew, Samaritan, 
and Syriac texts. But he is reckoned 
[in the LXX, and also] by S. Luke [c. 
iii]. He is said to have invented astro- 
logy ; and that his children raised a 
statue to him, and worshipped him as a 

That inscription of the Watchers, or 
children of Seth, and discovered by 
Cainan, is alluded to by Josephus (^Ant. 
Jud., lib. i, c. ii, p. 3) when he says that : 
" the children of Seth, like their father, 
excellent men given to virtue and to 
the study of the heavenly bodies — and 
not wishing that their discoveries should 
perish altogether, with the world that 
was to be destroyed by fire and water — 
set up two pillars, one of brick and 
the other of stone, on which they wrote 
their astronomical observations. So 
that if the pillar of brick was destroyed 
by the waters, the one of stone should 
remain. And it subsists to this day 
Kard yfiv rfiv 'SipiaSa, somewhere in 
the Sirian land. 

35 Xutpy Iv 'A(T<Tvpiy, o/xo^uvot 
S'tjffav iiiravrtQ, 

Kat ^ovXovt' ava^tjv tig ovpavbv 

— avTCLp tntir dvffioi fiiyav v\p66i 

Fi\pav, Kai Ovtjroiffiv iir 'd\Xr]\oiQ 
ipiv dtpffav, 

Avrap lirtl vvpyog Ttiriai, yXuiffaai 

navroSaTralg ^uvaiffi Sifarpt^ov 

{Orac. Sihyll., p. 336, quoted in Joseph) 
Ant. Jud., lib. i, c. iv, p. 3.) 

36 After they had worked at it forty 
years, God sent a strong wind, that 
threw down the tower. (Bar. Hebr. Syr., 
p. 9; and Arab., p. 18.) The languages 
were then seventy-two and one — '69iv 
Kai Mspoireg ovroi KeKXtjvTai, Sid rfiv 
fiefiepi(Tnkvr}v <pu)i>ijv. Kai tov irvpyov 
di'kfiiDV fioXi) KaTtarpixl/ev. (S. Epiph. 
Hceres., lib. i, c. i, p. 5.) 

37 S. Basil and Mar Ephrem say 
that the original tongue was Syriac; 
but S. James and John of Medin say 
it was Hebrew, spoken by Eber, who 
would not consent to the building of the 
tower of Babel ; whose tongue, there- 
fore, was not altered (Abulpharaj, Syr., 
p. 9 ; Arab., pp. 16, 18 ; Cedren. Hist. 
Comp., p. 22), who thinks it is a proof 
that Hebrew was the primitive tongue 
spoken by Adam. 

In those days the language and speech 
of men were one and the same. Some 
say it was the Syriac tongue; others say 
it was the Hebrew; others again say, 
that the tongue was Greek; and this 
approves itself to me. For the Greek 
language is wiser, clearer and broader 
than either the Hebrew or the Syriac. 

Then seventy-two men from among 
the people gathered together and said : 
" Let us build a city, and fortify it with 
a wall ; and let us build a tower that 
shall reach unto heaven ; that if a flood 
betake us hereafter we may be saved 
from it." They were three years making 
bricks, every one of which was thirteen 
yards long, ten yards broad, and five 
yards thick, etc., and they were forty 
years building the city. Then an 
angel came down, and confounded 
their languages, so that one could not 
understand another ; and the name of 
that city was called Babel, because the 
languages were confused there, and 
the people were dispersed. Of these 
seventy-two men, twenty-five were of the 




children of Shcm, thirty-two of those 
of Ham, and fifteen of the children of 
Japhet. Every one of these spake a 
different tongue, that spread over the 
face of the earth with their families. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., pp. 53, 54.) 

38 Bar Hebraeus relates a similar 
legend, and says that Nimrnd's royal 
crown was made of woyen material 
[zaqlro — filagree?] {Dyn. Syr., p. 9), but 
the Arabic copy adds that— some said 
the crown had been let down from 
heaven, (p. 18). 

In the days of Ragu the queen of 
Saba reigned many years. She built 
the city of Saba ; and after her queens 
reigned over that country until the 
days of Solomon son of David. 

In those days also reigned Karon, and 
they say that he melted gold, and built 
the city of Ukinin with bricks made 
of gold. (Eutych. Nazam al-j.., p. 61.) 

39 In the beginning of the thirty- 
fifth Jubilee, Ragu took Ara, the 
daughter of Kesed's son, who bare him 
Serug, so called [aitt;] because in his 
day men increased greatly in wicked- 
ness fought one against another, took 
captives, made idols and defiled the earth 
with blood, etc. Ur, the son of Kesed, 
built a city which he called Ara, where 
he set up the worship of the host of 
heaven and idols, and taught men to 
worship them. Then did prince Mas- 
tema exert himself to further all manner 
of idolatry and wickedness among men. 
Serug dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, 
where his wife Melka brought forth 
Nahor, who in time took lyosaka daugh- 
ter of Kheber the Chaldee, to wife, who 
bare him Terah, Abraham's father. 
(Kujale, c. xi, pp. 45, 46.) 

Abulpharaj {Syn., p. 10 ; and Arab., 
p. 18, 19) relates that Serug invented 
the coining of money ; and that the 
art of spinning silk and of dyeing, was 
introduced in his day, by Samirus, king 
of Babylon. 

In the days of Serug idolatry began. 
Kal 6 'EWrivifffibe and Gentile worship 
and superstitions. For not nntil then, 
were there statues carved in wood, atone, 
gold or silver ; before that man's imagi- 
nation represented wickedness only in 
colours, Serug begat Nahor, and Nahor 
Terah, who was the first to make idols 
of clay; and for his sin — in thus setting 
himself as rival against God iKotc 
avrH^riXov r<jJ Qftp irpotartjaaro, Sia 
rijc iSiag TrijXoupyiaf rixvrjffafiivoc, 
by his making idols of clay, he was 
punished by seeing the death of his 
son. (S.Epiphan. Hoeres., lib. i, c. i, p. 6.) 
Masudi (vol. i, p. 82, sq.) repeats the 
same thing, partly borrowed from the 
Coran, sur. c. vi, p. 75, sq. etc. ; c. xix, 
p. 38, sq. 

Arad the Canaanite, says Abul- 
pharaj {Dyn. Syr., p. 10), affirms that 
at this time the contiict of Job with 
Satan took place. He fought him seven 
times, and defeated him in every temp- 

And the Coptic calendar says that on 
the first day of the year. Job took a 
warm bath, that cured him of his 

40 In those days giants multiplied in 
the earth. Then was 'Ad born, son of 
Aram, son of Shem, son of Noah, in 
whose time measures and weights were 
invented. In his days there was also 
a great and violent earthquake, such as 
there had never been before; and this 
was, because the worship of idols had 
increased, and men sacrificed their sons 
and their daughters to devils ; therefore 
did God send upon them a tempestuous 
wind, and a hurricane that broke down 
all the idols, and demolished their 
shrines; nntil the dust of them became 
heaps and mounds that subsist unto this 
day. (Eutych, Nazam al-j., p. 61.) 

41 After the Flood, in the days of 
Eber and Phaleg, when the first city 
and the tower were built, Nembroth 




[Nimrnd] was the first to gather people 
together and to exercise dominion over 
them. N£^/3pw9 ydp (iamXivti — oq 
wpoffut ^wpriaas i'^i rd avaroXiKi 

fiipti, diKiffriic ylvtrai Bdicrpuv, 
ipTtvQiv TO. Kara, rijv yijv irapdvofia 
SiavivifiTiTai. (S, Epiphan. Semes., lib. 
i, c. i, p. 6.) 


1 " Things," says R. Maimonides, 
" went on from bad to worse, and 
the knowledge of God continued only 
among a few, such as Shem, Methuselah, 
Enoch, Noah and Eber, until the 
pillar of the world, our father Abraham, 
was bom. No sooner was that valiant 
one weaned, than he began to wonder, 
or doubt, in his own mind, and small 
as he was, he began to think day and 
night, how it could be "H^iTl bzl^Sn 

3^n3a lb n^W' wbi Tan am3 

that this round world could go on so 
continually without a Ruler; or who 
makes it go round, since it could not 
go round of itself. And so he went 
on doubting, until he came to the 
knowledge of the only true God, at 
forty-eight years of age," etc. (Hala- 
Iwt 'avoda kok., 0pp. vol. i, fol. p. 26.) 

2 Astrologers [men of the stars] 
observed the rising of the year in which 
Abraham was born ; and they sent 
word to Nimrud that a child should be 
born who would set at naught their 
dreams and overturn their worship. 
Then Nimrud ordered all children to be 
put to death. But Abraham was hidden 
in a cave [shown as his birth-place 
at Ur, or Urfah]. (Masudi i, c. iii, 
p. 83.) 

3 " It is well known," says R. M. 
Maimonides, " that our father Abraham, 
on whom be peace, was brought up in 
the faith of the SabsDans, andCnVTI 

D^^DIDn p"l nibs ^Sa? in their 
teaching [or, knowledge, doctrine] that 
there was no other God than the stars. 
When Abraham objected to this, and 
opposed their worship, we read in 
n">l033n HTOyn the Book of the 
Agriculture of the Nabathoeans, that 
the king of the place where Abraham 
lived, shut him up in prison ; but 
fearing lest his people should be turned 
from their faith, he confiscated all his 
property and banished him n!Jpb 
n~lTDn to the extreme east. [More 
Nevukim, iii, c. 29.) 

In those days prince Mastema [Satan] 
sent ravens in great numbers, that 
devoured the seed sown, and the crops 
that were raised ; so that men gathered 
in the fruits of the earth wiih great 
difficulty. And about that time Terah 
took Edna, daughter of Abram, to 
wife, who bare him a son whom he 
called Abram, after his wife's father. 
This Abram, when fourteen years old, 
began to pray his Creator to save 
him from the wickedness around him, 
and to give him an inheritance with 
the righteous. Then came sowing time ; 
and Abram went with others to watch 
the fields sown with seed. A flight of 
ravens then came down, and when 
about to alight, Abram ran, and bade 
them go back to whence they came. 
He did so seven times that day. And 
all people came to entreat him to go 




with them when they sowed their seed, 
to keep off the ravens. He then 
contrived a plough whereby the seed 
fell into the earth and got covered at 
once ; so that they no longer were 
afraid of the ravens. And Abram's 
name waxed great in Chaldsea. (_Kufale, 
c. xi, pp. 47, 48.) 

This legend is variously told by 
eastern writers. Bar. Hebrseus ( Chron. 
Syr. Arab., p. 11) simply says Abram 
drove away ravens, when fourteen years 
old ; but (in his Hist. Dyn. Arab., p. 19, 
20) he add8,"God heard Abram's prayers 
when fifteen years old, about magpies 
that laid waste the land of Chaldsea. 
S. Ephrem (vol. i, p. 156) says, "that 
Abram when a child, having been sent 
by Terah to drive away ravens [wrongly 
rendered ' locusts ' by the translator] 
sent to destroy the crops, as a punish- 
ment for the idolatry of the land, 
Abram — unable to drive them away — by 
a sudden impulse called upon God to 
order them off, who answered : ' Here 
am I,' and ordered the ravens away 
from Terah's field." [For the story of 
Abraham being cast into a burning 
furnace by the inhabitants of Ur, see 
Cor an, sur. xxi ; and Kufale, c. xii.] 

Targ. Jonathan, in Gen. xii, says : 
** Abram was cast into the fiery furnace 
by order of Nimrud ; because he would 
not worship the idol Nimrud had set 
iip," etc. 

4 Terah was a worshipper of idols. 
But Abraham turned him from them, 
and talked to him, and taught him 
Hebrew, his native tongue [lit. of his 
xsreation] ; and showed him how God 
had commanded him to go out of 
Haran unto the land of Canaan, to look 
M it, and come back. To which Terah 
said : " Go in peace, God of the worlds 
prosper thy way, and the Lord kepp 
thee safe from all evil, and show thee 
kindness and mercy, and give thee 
/avour in the ejes of all those who see 

thee ; that no man do thee hann. Go 
in peace. And if thou seest the land 
is pleasant in thine eyes, to dwell there, 
then come and take me to be with thee. 
Take with thee Lot, the son of Haran 
thy brother, to be a son unto thee. But 
leave thy brother Nahor with me, until 
thy return in peace ; when all of ns 
shall go together with thee." {Kufale, 
c. xii, pp. 51, 52.) 

5 " In those days appeared Melchize- 
dec, irapBtvoQ itptvg, an unmarried 
priest, son of king Sidus, son of Egyptus, 
who founded the town of Sidon. He is 
said to be without father and mother, and 
without kindred, 5«o to fin «? 'lovSaiKijc 
ytvtdg KardyitjOai, from his not being 
of the Jewish race, and because his 
parents being wicked, they were not 
reckoned among the good, and because; 
being ruler or prince among the 
Canaanites, he reigned at Jerusalem. 
He met Abraham, and as priest, iv 
aprifi Koi oivy irpoTVirwv ttjv dvaifia- 
KTOV Qva'iav XpiffroD row Qiov t'l/jiiiiv 
figuring with bread and wine, the 
bloodless sacrifice of Christ our God." 
(Cedrenus, Hist. Comp., p. 49.) 

Melchizedec, king of Jerusalem, and 
king of righteousness, CO? SIH he is 
Shem, Noah's son, priest of the Most 
High. (Targ. Jonathan and Hieros, in 
Gen. xiv.) 

6 When Abraham came to Egypt, 
he shut up Sarah in a box. But at the 
custom-house the officers asked him to 
pay duty on his luggage. " What is 
it, wares?" asked they. "I will pay 
duty on them," answered Abraham. 
"Is it gold?" "Also on gold," said 
he. " Is it pearls, then ? " "I will 
pay duty also on pearls," answered 
Abraham. " This will never do," said 
the officers, " Open thy trunk !" As 
Abraham opened it the whole land of 
Egypt was nVTQ Hp^H^n lighted 
up with Sarah's brilliancy. (Bereshith 
Rahhah, sect, xl, fol. 44.) 




7 About the rising of the moon [new 
moon] of the fourth month, " We," says 
the Angel of the Face, " appeared unto 
Abraham, by the oak of Mamrim, and 
we conversed with him, and gave him 
to understand that a son would be given 
him of Sarah his wife. But Sarah 
laughed, when she heard us say these 
words to Abraham ; and we rebuked 
her ; but she was afraid and lied about 
having laughed at these [our] words." 
(Zu/ole, c. xvi, pp. 61, 62.) 

About this time as our father Abra- 
ham sat at the door of his tent, three 
ministering angels were sent to him, on 
three errands : ( 1 ) to tell him of the 
birth of his son ; (2) to deliver Lot ; 
(3) to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah ; 
for it cannot be that a ministering angel 
be sent with in «b"'S3 ]» "l\n"^b more 
than one message at a time. (Targ. 
Jonathan and Hieros, in Gen. xvii. ) 

8 Isaac was thirty-seven years old, 
bom when Sarah was ninety years of 
age. Hearing of God's order to Abra- 
ham to sacrifice Isaac, she sickened, 
from grief, and died of that sickness 
that same year, aged one hundred and 
twenty-seven. (Eutych. Nazam al j., 
p. 77.) 

For the conversation that took place 
between Abraham and Isaac on this 
occasion, see S. Eustatbius Antioch. in 
Eexa'emeron, col. 764, ed. M. 

9 And it happened about this time 
that words were spoken in heaven about 
Abraham, how faithful he was in all 
that the Lord told him, and how true 
in all temptations. Then prince Mas- 
tema came forward and said to God : 
" Behold, Abraham loves his son Isaac 
best of all, tell him to offer him in 
sacrifice upon an altar ; then shalt thou 
see if he will do it, and be true and 
faithful in all that Thou commandest 
him." Then follows the Scripture 
account, as far as "Abraham took a 
knife," etc., when I» the Angel of the 

Face, stood before God and Prince 
Mastema. And God said to me : " Go 
and tell him not to lay his hand on the 
child, and not to hurt him ; for I know 
now that he fears God," etc. Then 
Mastema felt ashamed of himself. 
{Kufale, c. xvii, xviii, pp. 67, 68, 69.) 

Cedrenus {Hist. Cornp., p. 53) repeats 
this legend, but calls Mastema, MaaTiipar 
borrowed probably from the Greek 
original of the Ethiopic Kufale. 

" It is well known," says R. M. Mai- 
monides, " that the worshippers of idols 
always chose high places and mountains 
whereon to build their temples. There- 
fore did Abraham choose Mount Moriah, 

on which "H "nn'-n nw DDns 

he proclaimed the unity of God, as 
being one of the highest hills in that 
neighbourhood. But he consecrated 
the w'l^stern side of it for the sanctuary ; 
so as tp turn his back on the idolaters 
who always turn to the east, in wor- 
shipping the morning sun." {More 
Nevukim, sect, iii, ch. 45.) 

10 After Abraham had done bless- 
ing all his children and grandchildren, 
he and Jacob, lay together on the same 
bed. Then Abraham in his anxiety [or 
care] embraced Jacob seven times, and 
rejoiced over him, and added yet more 
to all the blessings he had given him. 
He then lay two of Jacob's fingers on 
his own eyes ; he blessed the God of 
gods, covered his face, stretched his 
legs, and died. And when Jacob 
awoke from sleep, he knew not that 
Abraham was dead, but called to him : 
" Father, father !" But when he felt 
him cold, he ran and told Kebekah, 
his mother, who told Isaac ; and they 
both came with a light, and found 
Abraham laid out. Then they buried 
him, in the double-cave [Machpelah], 
and mourned over him forty days. 
{Kufale, c. xxii, xxiii, pp. 82, 83.) 

Abraham lived upwards of three 
Jubilees and a half, because he was 




righteous ; for after the Flood man's 
life was cat short. And from Abra- 
ham forth, it will be said that, whereas 
the patriarchs lived eighteen or nineteen 
Jubilees, and had peace, now men only 
live seventy or eighty years and all is 
trouble, because of the wickedness of 
the world, that will grow worse and 
worse. Men will be covetous, eager 
for wealth, in order to get themselves 
a name thereby ; and defile the Most 
Holy with their evil deeds. They shall 
do evil — the young with the old, the old 
with the young ; the poor with the rich, 
and rich with the poor ; the mean with 
the judge, by reason of the law and 
judgment ; because- they shall have 
forgotten the commandments of God 
and right, feasts, moons, Sabbaths, 
jubilees, and all manner of judgment 
{Kujale, c. xxiii, pp. 84, 85.) 

11 Eutychus says Hiram was the 
first to clothe himself in purple, that 
was discovered thus : There was a 
shepherd with his dog one day tending 
his sheep on the sea-shore. The dog 
found a purple shell creeping on the 
shore and having eaten it, the shepherd 
wiped with some wool the dog's mouth 
that was full of purple colour. With 
the wool thus dyed the shepherd made 
himself a fillet or crown which he 
placed on his head. Every one who 
saw him walking in the sun thus 
arrayed, thought that a ray of light 
shone forth from his head. Hiram 
heard of it, sent for the shepherd, 
wondered at the beauty of the colour, 
and ordered his dyers of stuffs to dye 
a cloak for him of the same colour. 
(Nazam al-j., pp. 173, 174.) 

12 As with Abraham, so with Solo- 
mon there exists a whole literature 
about his wisdom and marvellons deeds, 
celebrated from his throne (Takht-i- 
Suleyman) on the Suleyman range of 
the Hindoo Koosh, to his dialogue with 
Saturn in the far north. The Suleyman 

Nameh, of which extracts arc given by 
Baron Hammer-Purgstall, in Rosen-ol, 
vol. i, is said to consist of sixty volumes ; 
but the stories of him in the Targum 
of Jerusalem on Esther, and in the 
Talmud (Gittin 68 ; see Fiirst Perlen- 
schwre, p. 121) are a thousand years 
older ; so also the accounts of the Wise 
King found in Eusebius (Prcep. Ev.), 
Josephus, the Goran, etc. For his 
psalms, see Fabric. Cod. Apoc. V- T., 
vol. i, and Woide's Sahidic New T. 
pref. for the same in Sahidic. 

" In the opinion of many Syrian 
authors," says Abr. Echellensis (Catal. 
Lib. Hebed Jesu, p. 238, sq.), " Solomon 
not only translated into Syriac the greater 
part of the Old Testament — the Pen- 
tateuch, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samnel, 
David, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of 
Songs, and Job — at Hiram's especial 
request, but he also invented the 
characters, according to Jesudad, who 
says that, ' Whereas Moses invented the 
Hebrew letters, Solomon invented all 
others, which he gave to the peoples by 
which he was honoured ; but he first 
of all invented the Syriac letters which 
he gave to Hiram, king of Tyre.' " 

13 After the death of Hezekiali, 
Manasseh forgot his father's command- 
ments ; and Samael took possession of 
Manasseh, and clung to him. Then 
Manasseh forsook God, served Satan, 
his angels and his powers, and turned 
his heart to the worship of Serial 
[Belial]. Then all manner of wicked- 
ness, magic and sorcery increased in 
Jerusalem ; Isaiah seeing this removed 
from Jerusalem, went and dwelt at 
Bethlehem. But as Bethlehem was 
equally corrupt, he and Michaiah, Joel, 
and Habakkuk and his son Josheb, and 
others who believed that the righteous 
would go up to heaven — resided on 
a hill, clothed in skins and living on 
roots and herbs of the mountains. 

Then Isaiah had a vision of the 




coming of the Beloved, for which 
Berial was angry with him, and took 
possession of the heart of Manasseh 
who sawed Isaiah with a saw to cat 

While he was being thus cut asunder, 
Belkira, Bankembeki and Berial stood 
opposite, deriding him. Manasseh also 
and Melkira and bis false prophets, 
stood by looking on. Bat Isaiah while 
being thus sawn asunder neither cried 
nor wept ; but his month conversed 
with the Holy Ghost. ' 

Thus did Manasseh according to the 
will of Satan. {Ascension of Isaiah, 
c. 2-5.) 

14 The Ethiopic translator omitted 
the story told in the Arabic original — 
that, when Isaiah was about to be sawn 
asnnder, he wanted water to drink and 
prayed God to give him some, as He 
had done to Moses, when smiting the 
rock. Then God told him to stamp 
the rock under him with his foot, 
whence a spring of water at once burst 
forth, that has continued unto this day. 

16 As for Jeremiah the prophet, they 
found him hidden and covered with 
mud in a land of waters (marsh). 
(Enseb. De Stella, p. 2, ed. W.Wright.) 
Jeremiah having fled into Egypt, was 
there stoned to death, and buried. But 
Alexander when he came into Egypt, 
brought the body of Jeremiah to 
Alexandria, and buried it there. 
(Eutych. Nazam al-j., p. 252.) 

16 Eutychus reckons thus : — 
From the end of Cleopatra's 
reign to the birth of 
Christ ... 30 yrs. 

From Alexander's reign . 319 „ 
From the removal to Babylon 582 „ 
From David's reign . , 1059 „ 
From the Exodus . . 1665 „ 
From Abraham . . . 2172 „ 
From Phaleg . . . 2713 „ 
From the Flood . . . 3244 „ 
From Adam . . . 6500 „ 

17 In the year 309 of Alexander, the 
Lord Christ was bom of the Virgin 
Mary, when Cyrenius was sent by 
Csesar to Jerusalem. Joseph went up 
with Mary to Bethlehem to inscribe 
their names. Mary brought forth. And 
Magi in their joumeyings came and 
offered unto Christ gold, incense and 
myrrh, who on their first interview with 
Herod, when asked by him their errand, 
said to him : " There was a great man 
among us who prophesied in a book he 
wrote, that in Palestine should be bom 
a child of heavenly race, whom the 
greater part of the world would serve. 
And the sign thereof unto you will be 
a star that will guide you to the place 
where the child is ; and when ye see 
it ye shall offer to Him gold, incense 
and myrrh. We saw the star and 
we are come to worship Him," etc. 
(Abulpharaj, Byn, Arab., pp. 109, 

This supposed prophecy is again men- 
tioned by Abulpharaj {id., p. 83). When 
speaking of Cyrus he says : " In those 
days came Zeradasht, chief of the 
Magian sect, by birth of Adjerbijan, or, 
as some say, of Assyria. It is reported 
that he was one of the prophet Elijah's 
disciples [as Confucius was of Daniel 
(?)], and he informed the Persians of 
the sign of the birth of Christ, and that 
they should bring Him gifts. And he told 
them that in after-time a virgin should 
be with child without having known 
man ; and that about the time of her 
bringing forth a star brilliant by day 
would appear, in the midst of which 
would be seen the figure of a young 
virgin. Yon, then, my children, will be 
favoured before all other people with 
the Light of that Star ; and when ye 
see it, go whither it leads you ; worship 
the child, and offer Him gold, incense 
and myrrh." 

It is needless to say that no such pro- 
phecy of Zeradasht or Zoroaster does 




exist. Neither does Abalpharaj allude 
to it in his Sjriac work, which in many 
respects differs from the same in Arabic ; 
done by him shortly before his death for 
his Arab friends at Mabug, some con- 
siderable time after his first work in 

The number of Magi — or, as some 
say, of kings with their armies — is 
variously stated. Eutychus {Nazam 
al-j., p. 310) says that only three Magi 
came, who told Herod the star had 
appeared to them two years before 
their arrival at Jerusalem. t6v darkpa, 
iiriTiWovTa ydti irph Svo fiaXiara 
Twv iviavTuv, Kai oifxi /xfra Svo rrjc 
ytvvijtTtug iTt], says Nicephorus Callix- 
tus (Eccles. Hist., lib. i., c. 13), who with 
Origen, S. Basil, S. Chrysostom, etc., 
refers the star to Balaam's prophecy. 
Nay, Eusebius probably wrote the small 
treatise on the star attributed to him, 
which exists only in Syriac, in order to 
show that Balaam's prophecy travelled 
eastward from Moab, and was handed 
down by Persian kings until the days 
of Augustus Caesar ; when the star did 
actually appear. Then were the king 
and the pe5ple greatly troubled at the 
light of the star that outshone all other 
celestial bodies by day as well as by 
night. The king therefore prepared 
offerings of myrrh and of incense, 
which he sent by Magi, worshippers of 
fire. But as the king did not know 
where Christ was bom, he commanded 
those who can-ied the gifts, saying : 
" Follow the leading of the star as you 
go, by day and by night keep to the 
light of the star; for the brilliancy 
thereof will guide you even when the 
sun is risen." Then they went to 
Bethlehem, and returned and told the 
king what they had seen and heard, etc. 
(Pp. 16, 17, fol. 12 of MS., ed. W. 

Et factum est, cum natus esset 
Dominus Jesus Bethlehemi, ecce I 

Magi venemnt ex Oriente Ilierosolymas 
quemadmodum prsedixerat Zoradascht, 
erantque cum ipsis munera, aurum, 
thus et myrrha, et adoraverunt eum, 
suaque ipsi munera obtulerunt. Eadem 
bora apparuit illis angelus in forma 
stellae [ovk //v ovro^ ipvaii Aarfig, aX\' 
oipii fiovov aart)p, Kai u>q a\t]9uQ Otia 
TIC Svvafiif:, S. Chrys. et Enthym., ad. 
loc] illius, quae antea dux itineris ipsis 

Aderant autem Reges and Principes 
illorum rogantes, ecquidnam vidissent 
aut egissent ? Quomodo ivissent ac 
redivissent ? Quos tandem itineris co- 
mites habuissent ? Hi vero protulerunt 
illis fasciam istam, quam Diva Maria 
ipsis tradiderat, etc. {Evangel. Infantice, 
c. vii, viii, ed. Fabr.) 

M. Tchamitch, in his Badmuthyiin 
Hayots (" History of Armenia "), vol. i, 
p. 277, relates also that " the wonderful 
birth of Christ was made known by 
means of a star, erits tnakuts thahavo- 
rats, to three Magi-kings, who came to 
Judaea to find Him and to worship 
Him." (See note from the " History of 
Georgia," at Book I, ch. xx.) 

" What sign then did you see," asked 
Herod of the wise men, " to tell you a 
king was bom." They said unto him : 
" We saw a very large star, shining 
among the celestial bodies, and out- 
shining them all, and we thus knew 
that a great king was bora in Israel, 
and we came to worship Him." {Proto-ev. 
Jacobi, c. xxi.) 

Fabricius thus quotes from his own 
edition of Chalcidius, p. 21 9, ad Timcewm 
" Est quoque alia sanctior et venerabilior 
historia, quae perhibet ortu stellae cujns- 
dam non morbos mortesque denunciatas, 
sed descensum Dei venerabilis ad bu- 
manae conservationis verumqne morta- 
lium gratiam. Quam stellam cum 
nocturno itinere suspexissent Chal- 
daeorum profecto sapientes viri — quae- 
sisse dicuntur recentem ortum Dei, 




repertaqne ilia majestate pnerili, vene- 
ratos esse," etc, (Cod. Ap. N.T., vol. ii, 
p. 116.) 

Solomon, Bp. of Bolsra (or Bassora), 
says in his Deburitho (or Bee, as quoted 
by Assem. Bihl. Or., vol. iii, p. 316), 
that the Magi were twelve Persian 
princes, whose names he gives at length. 
These occur also, with few changes, in 
other MSS., both Syriac and Arabic. 
Bar. Hebraeus, or Abulpharaj , in his Ozwr 
ros6, or "Storehouse of secrets," says 
that the Magi were only three princes 
who came with a thousand men (sent by 
Mahir-Shapur, king of Persia, to wor- 
ship Christ). But James, the Bishop, 
says they were twelve princes, who 
having left seven thousand of their men 

at the Euphrates, came to Jerusalem 
with only one thousand. The Bp. of 
Botsra, however, does not quote the tra- 
dition received by other historians, that 
the presents brought by the Magi to 
Christ were those which Adam had laid 
up in the Cave of Treasures ; which he 
made over to his son Seth, and which 
had been handed down unto the coming 
of Christ. 

Of those twelve princes, four, namely, 
Zarvandad, Hormisdas, Guznasaph, and 
Arsaces brought gold ; four, Zarvandad 
son of Varzud, Orthoes, Artaxerxes, 
and Estnnabudanes brought myrrh ; 
and four, Maruch, Assuerus, Sardalach 
and Merodach brought incense ; accord- 
ing to the Bp. of Botsra. 


Abel, his birth 
„ his sacrifice 
„ his death 
„ his burial 

Abraham, his call 

,, meets Melchizedec 
„ goes into Egypt 
„ sacrifices Isaac 
„ dies and is buried . 

Aklemia, Abel's twin sister 

Adam and Eve in the Cave of Treasures 
„ „ receive the promise of a Saviour, after 6500 days 

„ „ meet the Serpent 

„ „ their first offering 

„ „ first apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ second apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ third apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ fourth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ fifth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ sixth apparition of Satan to them . 

„ „ seventh apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ eighth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ ninth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ tenth apparition of Satan to them . 

„ „ eleventh apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ twelfth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ thirteenth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ fourteenth apparition of Satan to them 

„ „ fifteenth apparition of Sataa to them 



































Adam weds Ere ..... 


„ his advice to Cain and Abel .... 


„ his last words to Seth .... 


„ his death ..... 


Babel . . . . . 


Babylon ; captivity there ..... 


Cain, his birth ..... 


„ is tempted of Satan .... 


„ kills his brother Abel .... 


„ marries his twin sister Lulawa 


„ is killed by Lamech .... 


Cainan ...... 


Christ, His birth at Bethlehem 


Cyrus ..... 


Daniel, his birth ..... 


Enoch ...... 

. 137—141 

Enos ....... 


Eve, her death ...... 


Ezra ...... 


Genealogies ...... 


Genun, his doings ..... 


Jared ; increase of idolatry .... 


Jeremiah dies in Egypt .... 


Isaiah is sawn asunder . . . . . , 


Tiamech the blind ..... 


„ Noah's father . . . . 


Lnluwa, Cain's twin sister .... 


Magi-kings, worship Christ . . . . . 


Mahalaleel ...... 


Melchizedec . . . . . , . 


Methuselah ...... 




Noah and the Ark ...... 


Phaleg, Ragn, Serug, &c. . . . . . 


Seth and his children on the Holy Mountain 


Shem, Ham, and Japhet . . . . . . 


„ goes with Melchizedec to the middle of the earth 


The star and the Magi . . . . . 


In one volnme, fcap. 8vo. 


An apocryphal book of the early Eastern Church ; Translated from 
an Ethiopic MS. ; to which are added : — 


Also Translated from an Ethiopic MS. ; and 


Translated from the Armenian. 


New & Sfconuhani> Books, 

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